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Sickle Cell Anemia

Essay, term paper, research paper: Biology

❶This difference makes the globin chains of hemoglobin fold differently, especially in the absence of oxygen. Dream Essay is excellent.


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Sickled cells don't flow through blood vessels as easily, and usually cause blockage. This results in deprivation of oxygen rich blood to organs and tissues that need it. This causes the painful episodes that associate with the disease. This pain can seriously damage vital organs such as the heart, lungs, kidneys, spleen, pelvic bones and even the brain. Certain tissues can become infected and can cause other serious complications. The cycle of a normal functioning red blood cell is about days.

Sickle cells differ in that they last days long. Since the body cannot. Sickle cell anemia is caused by a mistake in the gene that instructs the body on how to make hemoglobin. The defective gene instructs the body to make abnormal hemoglobin, which then causes the red blood cells to take strange shapes. Thousands of years ago, a genetic mutation occurred in people from the Mediterranean basin, India, Africa, and the Middle East.

As the Malaria Epidemic attacked people of these countries, carriers of the defective hemoglobin gene survived. Carrying one defective gene means that a person has a sickle cell trait. Two parents with the trait will produce a child with sickle cell anemia.

People of these countries migrated and spread to other areas. In the Western Hemisphere, where malaria is not much of a problem, having the abnormal hemoglobin gene has lost its advantage.

Any child born from parents that each has the trait will be born with the disease. Approximately, two million Americans carry the sickle cell trait. In Hispanic American births, one in every thousand people acquire sickle cell anemia. The symptoms created by the blockage of blood flow can vary from patient to patient. Some have milder symptoms than others. Physicians use Hand-foot syndrome on patients to determine the disease.

The most common of these include the sickle cell trait. The first documented case of sickle cell disease was that of dental student Walter Clement Noel of Chicago in but symptoms associated with the disease is mentioned in African writings, referring the condition as chwecheechwe, abututuo, nuidudui and nwiiwii.

When Noel was admitted, an intern named Ernest Irons noticed that Noel's blood presented unusual features, that of many elongated cells. The attending physician, James Herrick was informed and they proceeded to document the progression of the disease over two-and-a-half years.

It took Noel nine years to succumb, presumably as a consequence of his condition. A researcher named Haln first coined the term "sickle cell" but it was V. Emmel who documented that the sickle cell trait could be present in healthy individuals without developing anemia.

By the s, it was established that the sickle cell was a result of abnormal hemoglobin but not the mechanism that led to the abnormality. In the s, American scientist Vernon Ingram isolated the culprit, an amino acid called valine, which took the place of glutamic in the beta globin chain of hemoglobin.

It may sound a trifling change, but it has had a profound impact on those who have it. Sickle cell is a genetic disorder that turns red blood cells, which should be round and flexible into stiff and sickle-shaped cells, which is why it is called sickle cell. This is due to mutations in the beta-hemoglobin HBB gene. Because they are inflexible, it is unable to travel smoothly in the blood vessels, bunching up and slowing the flow, preventing the efficient delivery of oxygen. This results in pain, organ damage and infection.

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Sickle cell anemia occurs when a person inherits two sickle cell gene, one from each parent, that cause the red blood cells to change and become crescent shaped. The underlying problem involves hemoglobin, a component of the red blood cells.

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B- Sickle cell anemia: A person with sickle cell anemia has most or all of the normal hemoglobin replaced with the sickle hemoglobin. It is the most common and most severe form of the sickle cell variations." These individuals suffer from a variety of complications due to the shape and thickness of the sickle cells. Essay The sickle cell disease is an inherited blood disorder that affects red blood cells. People with sickle cell have red blood cells that have mostly hemoglobin's, Sometimes these red blood cells become sickle-shaped or crescent shaped and have trouble going through small blood vessels.

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Sickle Cell Anemia Essay Words | 5 Pages. Sickle cell disease is a hereditary hemoglobin defect that occurs in people of African and Mediterranean decent. “First identified in by a hospital intern, sickle cell disease became, more than forty years later, the first disease found to . Abstract Sickle cell anemia is a group of inherited red blood cell disorders. Normal red blood cells are round like doughnuts, and they move through small tubes in the body to deliver oxygen. Sickle red blood cells become hard, sticky and shaped like sickles used to cut wheat.