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People with sickle cell conditions make a different form of hemoglobin A called hemoglobin S S stands for sickle. Red blood cells containing mostly hemoglobin S do not live as long as normal red blood cells normally about 16 days. They also become stiff, distorted in shape and have difficulty passing through the body's small blood vessels.
Tissue that does not receive a normal blood flow eventually becomes damaged. This is what causes the complications of sickle cell disease. There are several types of sickle cell disease. The most common are: Sickle Cell trait AS is an inherited condition in which both hemoglobin A and S are made in the red blood cells, there are always more A than S. Sickle cell trait is not a type of sickle cell disease.
People with sickle cell trait are generally healthy. Sickle cell conditions are inherited from parents in much the same way as blood type, hair color and texture, eye color and other physical things. The types of hemoglobin a person makes in the red blood cells depend upon what hemoglobin genes the person inherits from his or her parents.
If one parent has Sickle Cell Anemia and the other is Normal, all of the children will have sickle cell trait. When you pass an electric charge through a solution of hemoglobin, distinct hemoglobins move different distances, depending on their composition. This technique differentiates between normal hemoglobin A , Sickle hemoglobin S , and other different kinds of hemoglobin such as C, D, E,. Medical Problems Sickle cells are destroyed rapidly in the body of people with the disease causing anemia, jaundice and the formation of gallstones.
The sickle cells also block the flow of blood through vessels resulting in lung tissue damage acute chest syndrome , pain episodes arms, legs, chest and abdomen , stroke and priapism painful prolonged erection. It also causes damage to most organs including the spleen, kidneys and liver. Damage to the spleen makes sickle cell disease patients, especially young children, easily overwhelmed by certain bacterial infections. TREATMENT Health maintenance for patients with sickle cell disease starts with early diagnosis, preferably in the newborn period and includes penicillin prophylaxis, vaccination against pneumococcus bacteria and folic acid supplementation.
Treatment of complications often includes antibiotics, pain management, intravenous fluids, blood transfusion and surgery all backed by psychosocial support. Like all patients with chronic disease patients are best managed in a comprehensive multi-disciplinary program of care. Promising Treatment Developments In search for a substance that can prevent red blood cells from sickling without causing harm to other parts of the body, hydroxyurea was found to reduce the frequency of severe pain, acute chest syndrome and the need for blood transfusions in adult patients with sickle cell disease.
Hydroxyurea is a well-known drug, however its use in sickle cell disease is relatively new and must be approached with caution. Percent with severe pain times per year 5.
Estimated number with frequent severe pain 3, Assuming the average annual number of episodes 4. The total number of severe pain episodes in these patients 13, Assuming the average days of hospitalization 5. Estimated total number of hospital days for these patients 33, Estimates of sickle cell disease patients in the U.
In the US there were approximately 65, African-Americans suffering from sickle-cell disease. There were about 5, British sufferers. Worldwide, , babies are born with the disease annually. Sickle cell anemia results when a person inherits two genes for sickle hemoglobin, and is homozygous for the mutation. American-Africans are the most likly to develope sickle cell anemia. Hemoglobin is composed of two pairs of peptide chains: Sickle hemoglobin results from a point mutation in the beta-globin gene.
This single nucleotide change produces a single amino acid change: Valine, on the other hand, is a neutral, or uncharged, amino acid. Under normal conditions it behaves like a hydrophobic, organic molecule and wants to hide from water.
This difference makes the globin chains of hemoglobin fold differently, especially in the absence of oxygen. Normal hemoglobin just gives up its oxygen when it gets to the tissue that needs it, but it retains its shape.
Sickle hemoglobin, on the other hand, loses its oxygen, and becomes relatively insoluble. In the deoxygenated form, it forms into long arrays that come out the shape of the red cell and produce the characteristic sickling that characterizes the disease. The insolubility of deoxygenated reduced sickle hemoglobin is the basis of two rapid diagnostic laboratory tests for sickle cell anemia. Scientists recently have had some limited success in using genetic engineering techniques to get good copies of the beta globin gene into people with sickle cell anemia.
If they can succeed in this endeavor, people with the disease may be cured but will still be able to pass the genes onto their offspring. Sickle cell anemia Essay, term paper, research paper: Biology See all college papers and term papers on Biology. Need a different custom essay on Biology? Buy a custom essay on Biology. Need a custom research paper on Biology?
Sickle Cell Anemia Research Papers Sickle cell anemia research papers examine the disease that is an inherited blood disorder. Medical health writers research the disease and give the most recent information in a custom written paper.
- Sickle Cell Anemia Sickle cell anemia is caused by a defect in the gene that controls the production of normal hemoglobin, which is an iron-containing protein in red blood cells that transports oxygen from the lungs to body tissues. The defective gene results in the production of .
Sickle Cell Anemia is a hereditary disease that changes the smallest and most important components of the body. A gene causes the bone marrow in the body to make sickled shapes, when this happens; it causes the red blood cell to die faster.4/4(1). Internet Research Paper For Sickle Cell Anemia The definition for sickle cell anemia is an abnormal, rigid, sickle shape. Sickling decreases the cells flexibility and results in a risk of various complications.
Essay The sickle cell disease is an inherited blood disorder that affects red blood cells. People with sickle cell have red blood cells that have mostly hemoglobin's, Sometimes these red blood cells become sickle-shaped or crescent shaped and have trouble going through small blood vessels. Sickle Cell Sickle Cell Disorder Research Paper Sickle cell anemia is a disease passed down through families in which red blood cells form an abnormal sickle or crescent shape.