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❶Regulation and the Distortion of Scientific Your introduction should accomplish two things:

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The CMS style uses footnotes at the bottom of page to help readers locate the sources. Technical reports , for minor research results and engineering and design work including computer software , round out the primary literature. Secondary sources in the sciences include articles in review journals which provide a synthesis of research articles on a topic to highlight advances and new lines of research , and books for large projects, broad arguments, or compilations of articles.

Tertiary sources might include encyclopedias and similar works intended for broad public consumption or academic libraries. A partial exception to scientific publication practices is in many fields of applied science, particularly that of U. An equally prestigious site of publication within U. Publishing in the social sciences is very different in different fields. Some fields, like economics, may have very "hard" or highly quantitative standards for publication, much like the natural sciences.

Others, like anthropology or sociology, emphasize field work and reporting on first-hand observation as well as quantitative work. Some social science fields, such as public health or demography , have significant shared interests with professions like law and medicine , and scholars in these fields often also publish in professional magazines.

Publishing in the humanities is in principle similar to publishing elsewhere in the academy; a range of journals, from general to extremely specialized, are available, and university presses issue many new humanities books every year. The arrival of online publishing opportunities has radically transformed the economics of the field and the shape of the future is controversial.

Unlike the sciences, research is most often an individual process and is seldom supported by large grants. Journals rarely make profits and are typically run by university departments.

The following describes the situation in the United States. In many fields, such as literature and history, several published articles are typically required for a first tenure-track job, and a published or forthcoming book is now often required before tenure. Some critics complain that this de facto system has emerged without thought to its consequences; they claim that the predictable result is the publication of much shoddy work, as well as unreasonable demands on the already limited research time of young scholars.

To make matters worse, the circulation of many humanities journals in the s declined to almost untenable levels, as many libraries cancelled subscriptions, leaving fewer and fewer peer-reviewed outlets for publication; and many humanities professors' first books sell only a few hundred copies, which often does not pay for the cost of their printing. Some scholars have called for a publication subvention of a few thousand dollars to be associated with each graduate student fellowship or new tenure-track hire, in order to alleviate the financial pressure on journals.

An alternative to the subscription model of journal publishing is the open access journal model, which typically involves a publication charge being paid by the author. The online distribution of individual articles and academic journals then takes place without charge to readers and libraries. Most open access journals remove all the financial, technical, and legal barriers that limit access to academic materials to paying customers.

Open access has been criticized on quality grounds, as the desire to maximize publishing fees could cause some journals to relax the standard of peer review. It may be criticized on financial grounds as well because the necessary publication fees have proven to be higher than originally expected. Open access advocates generally reply that because open access is as much based on peer reviewing as traditional publishing, the quality should be the same recognizing that both traditional and open access journals have a range of quality.

It has also been argued that good science done by academic institutions who cannot afford to pay for open access might not get published at all, but most open access journals permit the waiver of the fee for financial hardship or authors in underdeveloped countries. In any case, all authors have the option of self-archiving their articles in their institutional repositories in order to make them open access , whether or not they publish them in a journal.

If they publish in a Hybrid open access journal , authors pay a subscription journal a publication fee to make their individual article open access. The other articles in such hybrid journals are either made available after a delay or remain available only by subscription.

Proponents of open access suggest that such moves by corporate publishers illustrate that open access, or a mix of open access and traditional publishing, can be financially viable, and evidence to that effect is emerging [ citation needed ].

The fraction of the authors of a hybrid open access journal that make use of its open access option can, however, be small. It also remains unclear whether this is practical in fields outside the sciences, where there is much less availability of outside funding.

In , several funding agencies , including the Wellcome Trust and several divisions of the Research Councils in the UK announced the availability of extra funding to their grantees for such open access journal publication fees.

In May , the Council for the European Union agreed that from all scientific publications as a result of publicly funded research must be freely available. It also must be able to optimally reuse research data. To achieve that, the data must be made accessible, unless there are well-founded reasons for not doing so, for example, intellectual property rights or security or privacy issues. In recent decades there has been a growth in academic publishing in developing countries as they become more advanced in science and technology.

Although the large majority of scientific output and academic documents are produced in developed countries, the rate of growth in these countries has stabilized and is much smaller than the growth rate in some of the developing countries. The fastest scientific output growth rate over the last two decades has been in the Middle East and Asia with Iran leading with an fold increase followed by the Republic of Korea, Turkey, Cyprus, China, and Oman.

By , it was noted that the output of scientific papers originating from the European Union had a larger share of the world's total from However, the United States' output dropped Iran, China, India , Brazil , and South Africa were the only developing countries among the 31 nations that produced The remaining countries contributed less than 2.

The report predicted that China would overtake the United States sometime before , possibly as early as China's scientific impact, as measured by other scientists citing the published papers the next year, is smaller although also increasing. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Redirected from Academic paper. For a broader coverage of this topic, see Scholarly communication. Academic journal publishing reform. Types of scientific journal articles. An estimate of the number of scholarly articles in existence" PDF.

Archived from the original PDF on An interview with Aileen Fyfe" Podcast. The Business of Academic Publishing: Archived from the original PDF download on Archived from the original on Kronick, "Peer review in 18th-century scientific journalism.

Rescuing Science from Politics: Regulation and the Distortion of Scientific An experimental study of confirmatory bias in the peer review system. Archived from the original PDF on 3 December Retrieved 19 November Journal copy-editing in a non-anglophone environment.

Matarese, Valerie ed Roles and challenges in multilingual settings. An Overview of Scientific and Scholarly Publishing. CHI '05 extended abstracts on Human factors in computing systems. New Scientist online magazine. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. Academic journal Scientific journal Open-access journal Public health journal.

Scholarly paper Review article Position paper Working paper Literature review. Retrieved from " https: All articles with dead external links Articles with dead external links from March Articles with permanently dead external links Webarchive template wayback links Pages with DOIs inactive since CS1 maint: Try to summarize all that you know.

The process of evaluation is an ongoing one. Evaluating a text is different from simply reacting to a text. When you evaluate for an academic purpose, it is important to be able to clearly articulate and to support your own personal response.

What in the text is leading you to respond a certain way? What's not in the text that might be contributing to your response? Watching Hitchcock's film, you are likely to have found yourself feeling anxious, caught up in the film's suspense.

What in the film is making you feel this way? Can you point to a moment in the film that is particularly successful in creating suspense? In asking these questions, you are straddling two intellectual processes: Constructing an informed argument asks you first to analyze - that is, to consider the parts of your topic and then to examine how these parts relate to each other or to the whole.

To analyze Hitchcock's film, you may want to break the film down by examining particular scenes, point of view, camera movements, and so on. In short, you'll want to ask: What are the components of Hitchcock's film, and how do these components contribute to the film's theme? How do they contribute to Hitchcock's work as a whole? When you analyze, you break the whole into parts so that you might see the whole differently. In the process of analysis, you find things that you might say. When you analyze, you break down a text into its parts.

When you synthesize, you look for connections between ideas. Consider once again the Hitchcock film. In analyzing this film, you might come up with elements that seem initially disparate. You may have some observations that at first don't seem to gel. Or you may have read various critical perspectives on the film, all of them in disagreement with one another. Now would be the time to consider whether these disparate elements or observations might be reconciled, or synthesized.

This intellectual exercise requires that you create an umbrella argument - some larger argument under which several observations and perspectives might stand. Many students writing in college have trouble figuring out what constitutes an appropriate topic.

Sometimes the professor will provide you with a prompt. She will give you a question to explore, or a problem to resolve. When you are given a prompt by your professor, be sure to read it carefully.

Your professor is setting the parameters of the assignment for you. She is telling you what sort of paper will be appropriate. In many cases, however, the professor won't provide you with a prompt. She might not even give you a topic. For example, in a psychology course you might be asked to write a paper on any theory or theories of self. Your professor has given you a subject, but she has not given you a topic. Nor has she told you what the paper should look like.

Should it summarize one of the theories of self? Should it compare two or more theories? Should it place these theories into some historical context? Should it take issue with these theories, pointing out their limitations? At this juncture, you have two options: It's always a good idea to talk with the professor. At the very least, you'll want to find out if the professor wants a report or a paper. In other words, is your professor looking for information or argument?

Chances are she'll want you to make an argument. It will be up to you to narrow your topic and to make sure that it's appropriately academic. As you think about a topic, ask yourself the following questions:.

When writing an academic paper, you must not only consider what you want to say, you must also consider to whom you are saying it. In other words, it's important to determine not only what you think about a topic, but also what your audience is likely to think.

What are your audience's biases? To whom are you writing, and for what purpose? When you begin to answer all of these questions, you have started to reckon with what has been called "the rhetorical stance.

Let's first consider your relationship to your topic. When you write a paper, you take a stand on a topic. You determine whether you are for or against, passionate or cool-headed. You determine whether you are going to view this topic through a particular perspective feminist, for example , or whether you are going to make a more general response.

You also determine whether you are going to analyze your topic through the lens of a particular discipline - history, for example. Your stance on the topic depends on the many decisions you have made in the reading and thinking processes. In order to make sure that your stance on a topic is appropriately analytical, you might want to ask yourself some questions. Begin by asking why you've taken this particular stance. Why did you find some elements of the text more important than others? Does this prioritizing reflect some bias or preconception on your part?

If you dismissed part of a text as boring or unimportant, why did you do so? Do you have personal issues or experiences that lead you to be impatient with certain claims? Is there any part of your response to the text that might cause your reader to discount your paper as biased or un-critical? If so, you might want to reconsider your position on your topic. Your position on a topic does not by itself determine your rhetorical stance. You must also consider your reader.

In the college classroom, the audience is usually the professor or your classmates - although occasionally your professor will instruct you to write for a more particular or more general audience. No matter who your reader is, you will want to consider him carefully before you start to write. What do you know about your reader and his stance towards your topic? What is he likely to know about the topic?

What biases is he likely to have? Moreover, what effect do you hope to have on the reader? Is your aim to be controversial? Will the reader appreciate or resent your intention? Once you have determined who your reader is, you will want to consider how you might best reach him.

If, for example, you are an authority on a subject and you are writing to readers who know little or nothing about it, then you'll want to take an informative stance. If you aren't yet confident about a topic, and you have more questions than answers, you might want to take an inquisitive stance. In any case, when you are deciding on a rhetorical stance, choose one that allows you to be sincere. You don't want to take an authoritative stance on a subject if you aren't confident about what you are saying.

On the other hand, you can't avoid taking a position on a subject: What if you are of two minds on a subject? Declare that to the reader.

Make ambivalence your clear rhetorical stance. Finally, don't write simply to please your professor. Though some professors find it flattering to discover that all of their students share their positions on a subject, most of us are hoping that your argument will engage us by telling us something new about your topic - even if that "something new" is simply a fresh emphasis on a minor detail. Moreover, it is impossible for you to replicate the "ideal paper" that exists in your professor's head.

When you try, you risk having your analysis compared to your professor's. Do you really want that to happen? In high school you might have been taught various strategies for structuring your papers. Some of you might have been raised on the five paragraph theme, in which you introduce your topic, come up with three supporting points, and then conclude by repeating what you've already said. Others of you might have been told that the best structure for a paper is the hour-glass model, in which you begin with a general statement, make observations that are increasingly specific, and then conclude with a statement that is once again general.

When you are writing papers in college, you will require structures that will support ideas that are more complex than the ones you considered in high school. Your professors might offer you several models for structuring your paper.

They might tell you to order your information chronologically or spatially, depending on whether you are writing a paper for a history class or a course in art history. Or they may provide you with different models for argument: No prefab model exists that will provide adequate structure for the academic argument. For more detailed advice on various ways to structure your paper, see Writing: Considering Structure and Organization.

When creating an informed argument, you will want to rely on several organizational strategies, but you will want to keep some general advice in mind. Your introduction should accomplish two things: Often writers will do the latter before they do the former. That is, they will begin by summarizing what other scholars have said about their topic, and then they will declare what they are adding to the conversation.

Even when your paper is not a research paper you will be expected to introduce your argument as if into a larger conversation. For more specific advice on writing a good introduction, see Introductions and Conclusions. Probably you were taught in high school that every paper must have a declared thesis, and that this sentence should appear at the end of the introduction. While this advice is sound, a thesis is sometimes implied rather than declared in a text, and it can appear almost anywhere - if the writer is skillful.

Because your thesis is arguably the most important sentence in your paper, you will want to read more about it in Developing Your Thesis. Because every thesis presents an arguable point, you as a writer are obligated to acknowledge in your paper the other side s of an argument.

Consider what your opponents might say against your argument. Then determine where and how you want to deal with the opposition.

Do you want to dismiss the opposition in the first paragraph? Do you want to list each opposing argument and rebut them one by one? Your decisions will determine how you structure your paper. Every convincing argument must have support. Your argument's support will be organized in your paper's paragraphs. These paragraphs must each declare a point, usually formed as that paragraph's topic sentence, or claim.

A topic sentence or claim is like a thesis sentence - except that instead of announcing the argument of the entire paper, it announces the argument of that particular paragraph.

In this way, the topic sentence controls the paper's evidence. The topic sentence is more flexible than the thesis in that it can more readily appear in different places within the paragraph. Most often, however, it appears at or near the beginning.

For more information on structuring paragraphs, see Writing: Writing a good conclusion is difficult. You will want to sum up, but you will want to do more than say what you have already said. You will want to leave the reader with something to think about, but you will want to avoid preaching. You might want to point to a new idea or question, but you risk confusing the reader by introducing something that he finds irrelevant.

Writing conclusions is, in part, a matter of finding the proper balance. For more instruction on how to write a good conclusion, see Introductions and Conclusions. You need to be analytical. You need to create an informed argument. You need to consider your relationship to your topic and to your reader. But what about the matter of finding an appropriate academic tone and style?

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The tone of an academic paper, then, must be inviting to the reader, even while it maintains an appropriate academic style. Remember: professors are human beings, capable of boredom, laughter, irritation, and awe.

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with at least one of the words. without the words. where my words occur. In academic publishing, a paper is an academic work that is usually published in an academic journal. It contains original research results or reviews existing results.

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