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The Victorian era

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When was the Victorian era?




Nobody ever does invent anything from scratch as each "invention" is the consequence of many previous discoveries and researches in this case especially those done by James Clerk Maxwell, Sir Oliver Lodge, and Heinrich Hertz.

Bicycles became very popular in the s. Invention of the penny-farthing bicycle. The huge front wheel was almost six feet from top to bottom.

It had no brakes! This design was used until about when a bicycle with equal-sized wheels was developed. Thomas Twyford built the first one-piece toilet. Twyford's model was also the first constructed of china, much easier to clean than the previous wood or metal models. Sir Rowland Hill, a retired teacher, introduced a pre-paid penny post for letters in Britain in Up to this time the person receiving the letter had to pay for it. With the invention of the stamp, the person sending the letter had to pay.

The Penny Black stamp is the world's first adhesive postage stamp, and is perhaps the most famous stamp ever issued. It was a one penny stamp with Queen Victoria's profile against a black background and was produced in It was used for letters weighing less than half an ounce.

For heavier letters the Twopenny Blue was used, which was similar, except that its background was blue. After the invention of the electric light bulb by Thomas Edison USA and Joseph Swan UK in , electric light started to replace the dim, yellow gas light, oil lamps and candlelight. Some towns were lit by electricity too, making them more welcoming at night.

Steam was used to power factory machinery, ships and trains. Great iron steamships were built made crossing the ocean faster than ever before. Many people left Britain, sailing away to start a new life in Canada or Australia.

By the s steam power was also being used to turn dynamos in power stations in order to make electricity. The s was a time of railway madness. Trains were cheaper and faster than canal boats or horse drawn carriages. The first steam trains had appeared before Victoria's reign.

Before this, it would have been just one tradesman making one thing at a time. Britain governed many countries, kingdoms and colonies all over the world. Many of these places are part of the British Commonwealth today. Before the Victorian era, it took days — sometimes weeks — to travel places.

It was also faster to get in touch with each other, too, even if you were all the way across the Atlantic Ocean. People started using electricity for the first time in the Victorian Era. The first electrically-lit streetlights, public building and even village were in the UK. By , half of all the people who lived in Britain not including the Empire lived in cities. This was a huge change because most people had lived in the country around the start of the Victorian era.

Victoria was crowned queen. The SS Great Britain was built — the first iron steam ship. It travelled over the Atlantic Ocean. Postage stamps were first used, and the Penny Black stamp was issued. About 5, miles of railway track was laid down, and rail travel became common. The Mines Act said that children younger than 10 years old and also women were not allowed to work in mines.

The pneumatic rubber tyre was invented. The Factories Act set limits on the amount of time women and children could work. The first public library opened in Manchester — anyone could borrow books for free.

Alfred Tennyson was named Poet Laureate. The first workhouses opened, giving poor people a place to live in exchange for their work. The Victoria and Albert museum opened in London.

The first post boxes were used — painted green, not red! An outbreak of cholera in London killed 11, people. Scientist Henry Bessemer invented a quick way to convert iron to steel, which helped mass production.

The National Portrait Gallery opened in London; it was the first portrait gallery in the world. The Science Museum opened in London.

A cable was laid in the Atlantic Ocean, between Ireland and Newfoundland so telegraphs could be sent between North America and Great Britain; it took a few more years to get it working properly, though. India started to be ruled by Britain. Voting laws gave all men who paid taxes a right to vote. The houses of Parliament in London were completed they had to be rebuilt because of a fire in The penny-farthing bicycle was invented by James Starley.

A drainage system in London was completed, which helped sanitation in the city. Queen Victoria was named Empress of India. The first telephones were sold through a company named after inventor Alexander Graham Bell. Thomas Edison made the first recording on a phonograph; Queen Victoria was recorded on a phonograph in The first electric streetlights were installed in London.

The Salvation Army was founded by William Booth to help the poor. The Education Act said that all children ages had to go to school. Godalming in Surrey was the first town in the world to have an electricity supply available for everyone to use; also that year, the Savoy Theatre was the first public building in the world to be entirely lit by electricity. The first electric railway was built in Brighton.

The standard bicycle like what we use today was invented. The first motor car was built in Germany by Karl Benz. The gramophone was invented by Emile Berliner. Queen Victoria celebrated her Diamond Jubilee. The Victorian era is named after Queen Victoria , who was queen from


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The Victorian period saw many major developments that made travel, communications and trade easier for many people. The railways allowed people to travel cheaply and rapidly, opening up new possibilities for both rich and poor.

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Invention of the penny-farthing bicycle. by British engineer, James Starley. The huge front wheel was almost six feet from top to bottom. and the seat was above the wheel.

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