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Government Terms

From the SparkNotes Blog

❶Default Failure of a vendor to comply with the terms and conditions of a contract. The action or process of treating a person as a mere commodity rather than someone possessing civil rights such as autonomy.

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Glossary of Terms in U.S. Government & Politics

The American state of Nevada is a bellwether state for presidential elections in that, with only one exception, it has voted the same as the whole country for a century. A bellwether is a ram with a bell attached to indicate to the farmer where the flock is when not in sight. A term to describe the politically and socially insular community of Washington DC.

One would be, metaphorical speaking, inside or outside the Beltway. Government with either two or one house of legislature. A person who refuses to discuss, consider or listen to, beliefs or theories contrary to his own.

If approved at all stages it then becomes an act and thus law. Attainder, meaning taintedness, also meant that any party guilty of a capital crime lost all civil rights including property, and if not life, then right to reputation. Still exercised in the 20th century in Australian states where a convicted capital felon, Darcy Dugan, was denied the right to sue for defamation and a dangerous inmate, Gregory Kable, was not released after his full prison term was served due to an act of parliament.

Aka Charter of Rights or Declaration of Rights. A list of entrenched fundamental human rights as perceived by the declarer. R is deemed to protect the citizenry from the excesses of their rulers. Adjective to describe a situation where the normally opposing political parties come together to agree on an initiative. Technically two parties coming together. A bird dog is a retriever who runs into the bushes and flushes birds out into the open.

Term has also been used in US presidential campaign by some players to go well further by inciting violence at opposition campaign rallies. A law where there may have been conjecture as to its meaning, but where appellate courts have subsequently settled the issue.

In multi-member electorates, each voter having the same number of votes as the number of vacant seats must tick off [say] three names. This has the effect of minimising the chances of minority candidates winning seats. The standardized, non-specific parts of editorials, presentations, contracts or emails traditionally made and expected, in addition to the specific. A speech on a particular policy issue would be described as B. Derived from original American Press Association offices which happened to be housed next to a sheet-iron processing plant, and third rate, filler, news articles issued became known as B.

A wasteful government financed infrastructure developed at a cost much greater than its value, undertaken for local or political gain. Marxist term now used to describe middle class professionals living a relatively luxurious life style. Aka Shy Tory Factor. Named after well-known African-American Tom Bradley, who attempted to be the first elected black governor in the US, but lost the Californian gubernatorial election despite previously being ahead in the polls.

Australian concept related to candidate manipulation in larger political parties. In modern times the most artful in this practice would be the government of North Korea. Term coined by Teddy Roosevelt who thought the American presidency gave an immense platform to advocate his positions on many issues.

Not a law but a government rule or regulation. A local election held to fill a suddenly vacated single member voting seat due to death, resignation etc. Caesar divorced his wife Pompeia after it was suspected, but not proven, that she aided a third party to commit the crime of sacrilege. A state ruled by a caliph, who is considered to be the chief Islamic civil and religious ruler, regarded as the successor in line from Muhammad.

A person who stands for election to political office. In Australia candidates can be nominated by political parties or stand as independents. An economic system based on the recognition of private property rights, where prices are dictated by supply and demand, and where the means of production and distribution of goods and services derive from privately owned resources, or capital, operating within an unregulated market.

A type of governance where those in power refrain from significant actions such as undertaking major legislative programs or senior judicial or public service appointments, but only maintain necessary normal administrative duties.

The reason for this is that power would be in transition due to an election being due or being called suddenly due to the success of a vote of no confidence, or some other situation where legitimate democratic government has to be restored. A pejorative term to describe outsiders taking advantage of a situation where others would normally be expected to benefit. Someone who predicts calamitous events if specific policy decisions are not undertaken, but whom are generally ignored.

A suddenly vacated Senate seat filled not by an election but by State government appointment. A closed meeting of members of a political party or faction. Also the term for a group of people within an establishment with a common political leaning. In Australia the term is used to describe the parliamentary members of the ALP. A controversy often a court case arousing high public interest because of policy issues at stake. Popular British 19th century working class movement advocating electoral reform.

Despite at one stage having three million signatures on a petition to Parliament, the movement eventually disbanded without witnessing any reforms.

Term to describe a situation in some countries where the granting of permanent residence to one foreign applicant on whatever grounds humanitarian, skilled or lottery will give that new resident rights to bring in their spouse or other family members, which in turn will grant further foreigners rights to enter because of their connections to the previous link, thus creating a seemingly perpetual chain.

A democratic vehicle for legislative or constitutional enactment which bypasses the legislature. As exists in Switzerland and some states of the USA, if a petition for a certain proposition can raise a specific number of signatures, then the legislature is compelled to put it to the people at a referendum and then to enact it in law if passed. I am a Roman Citizen. The claim by ancient Romans that wherever so they travel in foreign lands they should be afforded full rights and protection, with the understanding that Roman military might would respond to any violations.

Justification used by UK Prime Minister Lord Palmerston in when blockading Athens to ensure a British citizen there was compensated for the property damage inflicted by a violent Greek mob. A concept in American constitutional law to describe a situation where fundamental constitutional principles can be overlooked in exigent circumstances.

A place of work where the union has arranged that the employer will only employ those who are its members. A motion in legislative systems to bring a filibuster to an end and thus allow a vote on the bill at hand. A popular candidate at an election having the ability to draw votes, not just for himself, but also for his fellow party candidates.

As compared to the free market, an economy which is mostly under the command of the government. The law of the land which comes from neither the statute books nor the constitution but from court law reports. Originally that body of law which was common to all parts of England not customary or local law and developed over centuries from the English courts to be adopted and further developed in countries using that system.

As compared to democratically maintained law, common law is judge maintained and modified law and is valid unless it conflicts with statute law. The action or process of treating a person as a mere commodity rather than someone possessing civil rights such as autonomy.

The ability of a party to produce a particular good or service at a lower marginal or opportunity cost than another. If country A can produce both apples and oranges cheaper than country B, with apples significantly cheaper, it is more efficient for it to concentrate on growing and exporting only apples while importing oranges, even though the oranges imported would not be as cheap as those if home grown.

A form of federalism where the individual regions that make up the sovereign state exercise a larger degree of autonomy. Often the right to secede and the sole right to raise taxes, the funding of the central government coming from the regions. The set of basic rules by which a country or state is governed.

Sometimes includes a Bill of Rights. The ultimate set of laws to which all other laws made by contemporary governments are subservient to. The strength and integrity of a constitution is often reflected by the difficulty it is to be changed.

A proposal to alter the Constitution being put to the public vote. In Australia at a referendum the proposed alteration must be approved by a 'double majority': A measurement of inflation by comparing, at regular intervals, the price taking weighting into account of a set of basic consumer goods and services purchased by households. A tax on the spending of income rather than the earning of it, so as to include people who might otherwise evade income tax such as those in the black economy or successful with tax avoidance schemes.

Originally used to identify a geographical area sealed off to isolate infectious diseases, but now also used to identify the isolation of extremist political parties by other parties not dealing with them in regards to coalitions, voting preferences or any other communications or benefits. A free market economic system abused to the degree where some business people have become successful due to their relationships with government.

An act rarely forgiven in Commonwealth countries but common in the USA. A type of block voting but where the voter can choose, from the list of for example ten candidates running for four seats, his preferred four, or just two or even one.

In such decisions, the selected candidates would get one quarter of a vote each, or half a vote, or where only one candidate received the vote, the whole vote. An unexpected, somewhat unknown candidate with little public exposure who has potential to win an election against established candidates. Term originated by British politician and author, Benjamin Disraeli. State within a state. A situation in a country when a government agency, such as a branch of the armed forces, an intelligence agency, police, or a bureaucratic department, acts conspiratorially or overtly independently of civilian democratic leadership.

Whereas all parliamentary legislation is final and cannot be challenged in court apart from constitutional inconsistencies delegated legislation can be challenged in court if it is shown to violate the purpose of the original act.

A leader who gains popularity by appealing to prejudice and basic instincts. Considered manipulative and dangerous. The concept of moral obligation and binding duty. As compared to consequentialism, where an act is judged by its consequences the ends justify the means , D. A relaxing or easing of tensions between powers. Transfer of powers from the national or central government to state or local government. A procedure in non-STV pro-rep elections to evenly distribute seats where insufficient parties have won the normal quota of votes to claim the full number of seats available.

Government by the people in fact rather than merely in principle. The citizenry themselves voting on all issues affecting them. Practised in ancient Greece and to some degree in some cantons of Switzerland and the New England states of America.

Considered by most to be a highly impractical form of government. Direct government control of a country's economic and social institutions. Information that is false or misleading deliberately disseminated for strategic gain. Like how only dogs can hear the dog whistle, only the target political audience can comprehend the real meaning of the innocuous words spoken by the politician. Otherwise known as the unthinking vote.

An Australian federal election with two exceptions to the normal general election. Rather than the usual 40 Senate seats being up for election a so called half-Senate election , the full complement of 76 seats are vacated and thus the state quota to win a seat drops from Secondly, both houses of Parliament are dissolved at the time of the election, rather than normal situation where the Senate only dissolves at the end of its set term, which can mean that it can be as much as eleven months after a normal election before the new Senators take their seats.

The government can only call a DD election in specific situations as laid out by the Constitution. Using language to distort or even reverse the meaning of unpalatable information that has to be given.

Dorothy Dix was an American newspaper advice columnist who prefered questions she made up herself. To follow and support a no-chance-of-winning campaign or cause because of peer pressure. A reference to the tragic mass suicide in Jonestown, Guyana where cult followers of Rev.

Jim Jones drank grape flavoured, but poison laced, Kool-Aid. In pro-rep electoral systems the realistic quota to win a seat versus the theoretical quota. If there are three seats to be won in an election then in theory a quota of Theory attributed to French political scientist Maurice Duverger, which asserts a nexus in the number of political parties in a democratic state with the electoral system used.

Nightmare vision of society beyond that of even a failed, dysfunctional state, where the system is actually planned by those in power, creating, most often, a totalitarian society.

In practice the name often given by governments to voters in normal elections, or to those who have been appointed to a certain level so as to vote their choice to a higher office. Technically, a voter who is successful in helping to get his preferred candidate elected.

Term possibly used to disguise the fact that approximately half of all voters in SMV systems end up electing nobody. Geographical areas used as a criterion for political representation. Australia is divided into federal voting districts or divisions which are known as electorates.

One member is elected from each electorate to the House of Representatives. In Parliament the electorate of Menzies will be represented by the Member for Menzies who will have the Seat of Menzies. Aka the Age of Reason. Originating in the UK but developing fully in continental countries such as France with thinkers such as Spinoza, Voltaire and Rousseau.

The pre-requisite to voting. Australian citizens of at least 18 yrs are allowed and compelled to enrol. In the USA those who choose to vote must repeatedly enrol for every election. A suggested electoral system where votes are somehow weighted according to the degree of knowledge of the voter. In Ireland university graduates get to elect six university seats as well as exercising a normal vote shared by all other citizens.

In optional preferential voting systems, a vote that was not fully completed and, in being counted, has reached its last candidate, still not made up a quota, and thus becomes worthless. The power to do something or hold an office by virtue of the fact that one holds an earlier office.

A covert operation, military or otherwise, which attempts to present a different identity of the perpetrators, for propaganda, diplomatic or strategic reasons. Any request to submit offers or quotations to the Government. A Government-prepared document incorporated into the solicitation that states the overall performance objectives.

It is used in solicitations when the Government intends to provide the maximum flexibility to each offeror to propose an innovative approach. That portion of the contract that clearly and concisely defines requirements of the specific work to be accomplished.

Statements of work are individually tailored to consider the period of performance, deliverable items, if any, and the desired degree of performance flexibility.

In the case of task-order contracts, the statement of work for the basic contract only defines the scope of the overall contract in general terms. The statement of work for each task order must articulate the specific requirement. An agreement between a prime or general contractor and a subcontractor or subconsultant for the execution of a portion of the contractual obligation of the prime contract to the owner. A written plan, submitted by a prime contractor and approved by a contracting officer, that describes goals and actions the contractor plans to take to use small and small disadvantaged businesses to the maximum practicable extent in performing the contract.

All property except land or interest in land. It includes but is not limited to public works, buildings, and facilities; ships, floating equipment, and vessels of every character, type, and description, together with parts and accessories; aircraft and aircraft parts, accessories, and equipment; machine tools; and the alteration or installation of any of the foregoing.

Action taken by a suspending official under FAR 9. The number required by the IRS to be used by the offeror in reporting income tax and other returns.

A contract providing for the procurement of supplies or services on the basis of direct labor hours at specified fixed hourly rates and material at cost, or at some bid percentage discount from manufacturer's catalog or list prices.

A written proposal for a new or innovative idea that is submitted to an agency on the initiative of the offeror for the purpose of obtaining a contract with the Government, and that is not in response to a request for proposals, Broad Agency Announcement, Small Business Innovation Research topic, Small Business Technology Transfer Research topic, Program Research and Development Announcement, or any other Government-initiated solicitation or program.

A promise or affirmation given by a contractor to the Government regarding the nature, usefulness, or condition of the supplies or performance of services furnished under the contract.

Login Contact Us Events Staff. Acceptance The act of an authorized government representative buyer by which the government assents to ownership of existing and identified supplies or approves specific services rendered, as partial or complete performance of a contract. Acquisition The acquiring by contract with appropriated funds of supplies or services including construction by and for the use of the Federal Government through purchase or lease, whether the supplies or services are already in existence or must be created, developed, demonstrated, and evaluated.

Addenda Supplements to the bid or proposal form as originally issued, covering additions, corrections, or changes in the bidding conditions for the advertised work. Affiliates According to the SBA, affiliation exists when one business controls or has the power to control another or when a third party or parties controls or has the power to control both businesses.

Amendment A change to a solicitation before contract award. Award Any mechanism, signed by a contracting officer, providing government funds or other resources to an offeror that permits expenditure of such government funds or use of such government resources. Basic Ordering Agreement BOA A Basic Ordering Agreement is a written instrument of understanding, negotiated between an agency, contracting activity, or contracting office and a contractor, that contains 1 terms and clauses applying to future contracts orders between the parties during its term, 2 a description, as specific as practicable, of supplies or services to be provided, and 3 methods for pricing, issuing, and delivering future orders under the basic ordering agreement.

Best value A procurement system that looks at factors other than only price, such as quality and expertise, when selecting vendors or contractors. Bid An offer to perform the work described in a contract at a specified cost. Bid Documents The advertisement or invitation to bid, instructions to bidders, the bid form, and the proposed contract documents including any addenda issued prior to receipt of bids.

Bundled Contract A contract where the requirements have been consolidated by bundling. Bundling Consolidating two or more requirements for supplies or services, previously provided or performed under separate smaller contracts, into a solicitation for a single contract that is likely to be unsuitable for award to a small-business concern.

Central Contractor Registration CCR database The primary Government repository for contractor information required for the conduct of business with the Government.

Certificate of Competency A certificate issued by the Small Business Administration SBA stating that the holder is "responsible" in terms of capability, competency, capacity, credit, integrity, perseverance, and tenacity for the purpose of receiving and performing a specific government contract.

Claim A written demand or written assertion by one of the contracting parties seeking, as a matter of right, the payment of money in a sum certain, the adjustment or interpretation of contract terms, or other relief arising under or relating to the contract. Closeout The process in which the awarding agency determines that all applicable administrative actions and all required work of the award have been completed by the recipient and the awarding agency.

Commercial-Off-The-Shelf COTS 1 Means any item or supply including construction material that is— i A commercial item as defined in FAR Part 12 ; ii Sold in substantial quantities in the commercial marketplace; and iii Offered to the Government, under a contract or subcontract at any tier, without modification, in the same form in which it is sold in the commercial marketplace.

Commodity A transportable article of trade or commerce that can be bartered or sold. Competition A procurement strategy where more than one contractor that is capable of performing the contract is solicited to submit an offer for supplies and services.

Contract A mutually binding legal relationship obligating the seller to furnish the supplies or services including construction and the buyer to pay for them. Contract Administration The management of all actions after the award of a contract that must be taken to assure compliance with the contract; e.

Contract Modification Any written change in the terms of a contract after contract award. Contracting Purchasing, renting, leasing, or otherwise obtaining supplies or services from nonfederal sources. Contractor An individual or vendor that has entered into an agreement to provide goods or services to an agency. Cooperative Agreement An assistance instrument used when substantial involvement is anticipated between the Federal government and the state or local government or other recipient during performance of the contemplated activity.

Cost or Pricing Data All facts that, as of the date of price agreement, or, if applicable, an earlier date agreed upon between the parties that is as close as practicable to the date of agreement on price, prudent buyers and sellers would reasonably expect to affect price negotiations significantly. Cost Reimbursement Contracts Contracts based on payment by an agency to a contractor of allowable, reasonable and allocable costs incurred in the contract performance to the extent prescribed in the contract.

Cost sharing An explicit arrangement under which the contractor bears some of the burden of reasonable, allocable, and allowable contract cost. Cure Notice A notice, either oral or written, that informs the vendor that he or she is in default and states what the vendor has to do to correct the deficiency. Default Failure of a vendor to comply with the terms and conditions of a contract.

Deliverable A report or product that must be delivered to an agency by the contractor or by the sub to the prime contractor to satisfy contractual requirements. Delivery Order An order for supplies placed against an established contract or with Government sources. Direct Cost Any cost that is identified specifically with a particular final cost objective. Escalation Clause A contract provision that permits the adjustment of contract prices by an amount or percent if certain specified contingencies occur, such as changes in the vendor's raw material or labor costs.

Excluded Parties List System EPLS An electronic database maintained and posted by the General Services Administration containing the list of all parties suspended, proposed for debarment, debarred, declared ineligible, or excluded or disqualified under the non-procurement common rule by agencies, Government corporations, or by the Government Accountability Office.

Federal Acquisition Regulations FAR The body of regulations that are the primary sources of authority governing the Federal government procurement process. Fixed Price Contract A type of contract that provides for a firm price or, under appropriate circumstances, for an adjustable price for the supplies or services being procured. Destination Free on board at destination; i. Origin Free on board at origin; i. Freedom of Information Act FOIA Provides that information is to be made available to the public either by publishing it in the Federal Register, providing an opportunity to read and copy records at convenient locations, or upon request, providing a copy of a reasonable described record.

Full and Open Competition When used with respect to a contract action, means that all responsible sources are permitted to compete. Government-wide Acquisition Contract GWAC A task-order or delivery-order contract for information technology established by one agency for Government-wide use. Grant Agreement An assistance instrument used when substantial involvement is NOT anticipated between the Federal government and the state or local government or other recipient during performance of the contemplated activity.

HUBZone A historically underutilized business zone that is an area located within one or more qualified census tracts, qualified nonmetropolitan counties, lands within the external boundaries of an Indian reservation, qualified base closure areas, or re-designated areas. Indirect Cost Any cost not directly identified with a single final cost objective, but identified with two or more final cost objectives or with at least one intermediate cost objective.

Indirect Cost Rate The percentage or dollar factor that expresses the ratio of indirect expense incurred in a given period to direct labor cost, manufacturing cost, or another appropriate base for the same period.

Ineligible Excluded from Government contracting and subcontracting, if appropriate pursuant to statutory, Executive order, or regulatory authority. Inherently Governmental Function A function that is so intimately related to the public interest as to mandate performance by Government employees. Joint Venture An association of two or more business entities to carry on a single business enterprise for profit for which purpose they combine their property, capital, efforts, skills and knowledge.

Liquidated Damages A sum stated in a contract to be paid as ascertained damages for failure to perform in accordance with the contract. Lowest Apparent Bidder The bidder whose bid is the lowest at a public bid opening.

Micro-Purchase An acquisition of supplies or services using simplified acquisition procedures, the aggregate amount of which does not exceed the micro-purchase threshold. Novation Agreement A legal instrument— 1 Executed by the— i Contractor transferor ; ii Successor in interest transferee ; and iii Government; and 2 By which, among other things, the transferor guarantees performance of the contract, the transferee assumes all obligations under the contract, and the Government recognizes the transfer of the contract and related assets.

Offer A response to a solicitation that, if accepted, would bind the offeror to perform the resultant contract. Online Representations and Certifications Application ORCA The former Government repository for contractor submitted representations and certifications required for the conduct of business with the Government. Option A unilateral right in a contract by which, for a specified time, the Government may elect to purchase additional supplies or services called for by the contract, or may elect to extend the term of the contract.

Partial Termination The termination of a part, but not all, of the work that has not been completed and accepted under a contract. Performance-Based Acquisition PBA An acquisition structured around the results to be achieved as opposed to the manner by which the work is to be performed. Performance Work Statement PWS A statement of work for performance-based acquisitions that describes the required results in clear, specific and objective terms with measurable outcomes.

Personal Services Contract A contract that, by its express terms or as administered, makes the contractor personnel appear to be, in effect, Government employees.

Pricing The process of establishing a reasonable amount or amounts to be paid for supplies or services. Procurement The procedures for obtaining goods or services, including all activities from the planning steps and preparation and processing of a requisition, through receipt and acceptance of delivery and processing of a final invoice for payment.

Purchase Order An offer by the Government to buy supplies or services, including construction and research and development, upon specified terms and conditions, using simplified acquisition procedures.

Qualified Products List QPL A list of products that have been examined, tested, and have satisfied all applicable qualification requirements. Request for Proposals RFP: Request for Quotation RFQ: Requirements Contract open-end contracts A form of contract covering long-term requirements used when the total quantity required cannot be definitely fixed but can be stated as an estimate or within maximum and minimum limits, with deliveries on demand.

Requisition An internal document that a functional department stores, maintenance, production, etc. Responsible Bidder A business entity that has the capability in all respects to perform fully the contract requirements and whose integrity and reliability will assure good-faith performance.

Shall Means the imperative. Should An expected course of action or policy that is to be followed unless inappropriate for a particular circumstance. Small Business Concern A concern, including its affiliates, that is independently owned and operated, not dominant in the field of operation in which it is bidding on Government contracts, and qualified as a small business under the criteria and size standards in 13 CFR part see Small Disadvantaged Business Concern An offeror, that is a small business under the size standard applicable to the acquisition; and either— 1 Is at least 51 percent unconditionally and directly owned as defined at 13 CFR Sole Source Acquisition A contract for the purchase of supplies or services that is entered into or proposed to be entered into by an agency after soliciting and negotiating with only one source Solicitation Any request to submit offers or quotations to the Government.

Solicitation Provision or Provision a term or condition used only in solicitations and applying only before contract award Statement of Objectives SOO A Government-prepared document incorporated into the solicitation that states the overall performance objectives. It is used in solicitations when the Government intends to provide the maximum flexibility to each offeror to propose an innovative approach Statement of Work SOW: The statement of work for each task order must articulate the specific requirement Subcontract An agreement between a prime or general contractor and a subcontractor or subconsultant for the execution of a portion of the contractual obligation of the prime contract to the owner.

Subcontracting Plan A written plan, submitted by a prime contractor and approved by a contracting officer, that describes goals and actions the contractor plans to take to use small and small disadvantaged businesses to the maximum practicable extent in performing the contract Supplies All property except land or interest in land.

Suspension Action taken by a suspending official under FAR 9. Task Order An order for services placed against an established contract or with Government sources. Time and Materials Contract A contract providing for the procurement of supplies or services on the basis of direct labor hours at specified fixed hourly rates and material at cost, or at some bid percentage discount from manufacturer's catalog or list prices.

Unsolicited Proposal A written proposal for a new or innovative idea that is submitted to an agency on the initiative of the offeror for the purpose of obtaining a contract with the Government, and that is not in response to a request for proposals, Broad Agency Announcement, Small Business Innovation Research topic, Small Business Technology Transfer Research topic, Program Research and Development Announcement, or any other Government-initiated solicitation or program.

Warranty A promise or affirmation given by a contractor to the Government regarding the nature, usefulness, or condition of the supplies or performance of services furnished under the contract. Women-Owned Small Business WOSB Concern 1 A small business concern— i That is at least 51 percent owned by one or more women; or, in the case of any publicly owned business, at least 51 percent of the stock of which is owned by one or more women; and ii Whose management and daily business operations are controlled by one or more women; or 2 A small business concern eligible under the Women-Owned Small Business Program in accordance with 13 CFR part see subpart A contract where the requirements have been consolidated by bundling.

A transportable article of trade or commerce that can be bartered or sold. Any written change in the terms of a contract after contract award. An assistance instrument used when substantial involvement is anticipated between the Federal government and the state or local government or other recipient during performance of the contemplated activity.

Failure of a vendor to comply with the terms and conditions of a contract. An order for supplies placed against an established contract or with Government sources. An assistance instrument used when substantial involvement is NOT anticipated between the Federal government and the state or local government or other recipient during performance of the contemplated activity.

A legal instrument— 1 Executed by the— i Contractor transferor ; ii Successor in interest transferee ; and iii Government; and 2 By which, among other things, the transferor guarantees performance of the contract, the transferee assumes all obligations under the contract, and the Government recognizes the transfer of the contract and related assets.

The process of establishing a reasonable amount or amounts to be paid for supplies or services.


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cooperative federalism - A term used to describe federalism for most of the twentieth century (and into the twenty-first), where the federal government and the states work closely together and are intertwined; also known as marble-cake federalism.

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Term derived from the T.S. Eliot poem of that name in reference to the ‘men of straw’ described. honeymoon period The first few months of a new government during which the incumbent/s are granted a non-belligerent grace period . Students who are taking the AP U.S. Government Exam should memorize the following vocabulary terms. These important AP U.S. Government concepts are essential to your success on the AP U.S. Government (AP Gov) exam. Every important vocabulary word from Government By the People, broken down chapter-by-chapter for quick review.

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the branch of the United States government that makes laws The legislative branch of government; elected by the people, also know as Congress responsible for proposing and passing laws. executive branch. Start studying AP US Government and Politics Terms. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.