The UN Convention on the Rights of Child states that anyone below 18 should be enjoying the rights of child status. Under such an assumption, it sets forth a stronger and positive directive of children being treated with dignity and help them have the privilege of education and other benefits. The ILO Worst Form of Child Labor convention stipulates complete prohibition of barbarous child labor forms such as slavery, prostitution, and trafficking.
In India, the Child Labor Regulation and Prevention Act was constituted in and a National Policy on Child Labor was formulated in to enable systematic rehabilitation of children involved in hazardous industries and labor. Child Rights and You CRY , International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labor working with several host organizations in specific countries are some of the global organizations against child labor.
In India, Childline India, Bachpan Andolan, Save the Children are the leading organizations that actively work at grassroots levels to eliminate the malaise called child labor. The practice of child labor no matter how recurrent will continue to haunt the society until it is terminated from the root.
Child labor not only bars children from being effectively educated but also causes severe physical deformities. On account of being exposed to harsh conditions early, tender body parts are often seriously injured.
One should always be aware and restrict employment of children of any age in labor work meant for adults. The age between years calls as children. But when these children are forced to do work like adults do that can affect their mental, physical and social development as well then is known as child labor. Child labor is still a serious issue in many countries.
There are 64 countries highest in child labor some of them are Somalia, Pakistan, Zimbabwe, Afganistan, Nigeria. Around billion children are affected by child labor out of billion, 8 billion children are worst child labor. They are forced to do prostitution, child pornography etc. The main reason behind child labor is poverty and inadequate education. Poverty is the main reason that has increased child labor issue. Even if there are schools either schools are located at far distance or fees of schools is not affordable so many parents stop their child from getting an education and force them to work somewhere.
As compared to girls, boys are more likely to be forced into child labor. When a girl is born their parents literally sell her to some person and get money in return generally these girls are then work in prostitution. Increasing child labor is stated as a serious issue in terms of economic welfare. There are many non-governmental organizations like Bachpan Bachao Andolan, Child Fund etc who are taking initiative against child labor.
Which is indeed a good thing for India. We have many people around who speaks about child labor, read about child labor and write articles regarding it. But in actual these are the only people responsible for child labor directly or indirectly.
Essay writing is a fun thing if you know what you are doing. Essay writing can be done learned in practice. Here in this section, we have given you some tips about writing an essay. These tips will help you to write the best essay on child labor. Not a single speaker is born with the talent for delivering awesome speeches. It takes years of practice and commitment to be able to deliver a speech that can win the hearts of people. The art of rocking an awesome speech can be learned through practice.
Here are some tips that will help you to boost up your speech game. These tips will also help you with your speech on child labor. I hope you find this article helpful. If yes then please Rate the article and leave a comment in the comment section below. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed. These cities drew in the population that was rapidly growing due to increased agricultural output.
This process was replicated in other industrialising counties. The Victorian era in particular became notorious for the conditions under which children were employed. Working hours were long: Child labour played an important role in the Industrial Revolution from its outset, often brought about by economic hardship. The children of the poor were expected to contribute to their family income. In England and Scotland in , two-thirds of the workers in water-powered cotton mills were described as children.
Throughout the second half of the 19th century, child labour began to decline in industrialised societies due to regulation and economic factors because of the Growth of Trade Unions. The regulation of child labour began from the earliest days of the Industrial revolution. The first act to regulate child labour in Britain was passed in As early as and Factory Acts were passed to regulate the working hours of workhouse children in factories and cotton mills to 12 hours per day. These acts were largely ineffective and after radical agitation, by for example the "Short Time Committees" in , a Royal Commission recommended in that children aged 11—18 should work a maximum of 12 hours per day, children aged 9—11 a maximum of eight hours, and children under the age of nine were no longer permitted to work.
This act however only applied to the textile industry, and further agitation led to another act in limiting both adults and children to hour working days. Lord Shaftesbury was an outspoken advocate of regulating child labour. As technology improved and proliferated, there was a greater need for educated employees. This saw an increase in schooling, with the eventual introduction of compulsory schooling.
Improved technology and automation also made child labour redundant. In the early 20th century, thousands of boys were employed in glass making industries. Glass making was a dangerous and tough job especially without the current technologies.
When the boys are at work, they are exposed to this heat. This could cause eye trouble, lung ailments, heat exhaustion, cut, and burns. Since workers were paid by the piece, they had to work productively for hours without a break.
Since furnaces had to be constantly burning, there were night shifts from 5: Many factory owners preferred boys under 16 years of age. In , over 2 million children in the same age group were employed in the United States. Hine took these photographs between and as the staff photographer for the National Child Labor Committee.
Factories and mines were not the only places where child labour was prevalent in the early 20th century. Home-based manufacturing across the United States and Europe employed children as well. Legislation that followed had the effect of moving work out of factories into urban homes.
Families and women, in particular, preferred it because it allowed them to generate income while taking care of household duties. Home-based manufacturing operations were active year-round. Families willingly deployed their children in these income generating home enterprises. In France, over 58 percent of garment workers operated out of their homes; in Germany, the number of full-time home operations nearly doubled between and ; and in the United States, millions of families operated out of home seven days a week, year round to produce garments, shoes, artificial flowers, feathers, match boxes, toys, umbrellas and other products.
Children aged 5—14 worked alongside the parents. Home-based operations and child labour in Australia, Britain, Austria and other parts of the world was common. Rural areas similarly saw families deploying their children in agriculture. In , Frieda S. Miller - then Director of United States Department of Labour - told the International Labour Organisation that these home-based operations offered, "low wages, long hours, child labour, unhealthy and insanitary working conditions.
Child labour is still common in many parts of the world. Estimates for child labour vary. It ranges between and million, if children aged 5—17 involved in any economic activity are counted. If light occasional work is excluded, ILO estimates there were million child labourers aged 5—14 worldwide in This is about 20 million less than ILO estimate for child labourers in Some 60 percent of the child labour was involved in agricultural activities such as farming, dairy, fisheries and forestry.
Another 25 percent of child labourers were in service activities such as retail, hawking goods, restaurants, load and transfer of goods, storage, picking and recycling trash, polishing shoes, domestic help, and other services.
The remaining 15 percent laboured in assembly and manufacturing in informal economy, home-based enterprises, factories, mines, packaging salt, operating machinery, and such operations. Some children work as guides for tourists, sometimes combined with bringing in business for shops and restaurants. Contrary to popular beliefs, most child labourers are employed by their parents rather than in manufacturing or formal economy.
Children who work for pay or in-kind compensation are usually found in rural settings, then urban centres. Less than 3 percent of child labour aged 5—14 across the world work outside their household, or away from their parents.
Africa has the highest percentage of children aged 5—17 employed as child labour, and a total of over 65 million. Asia, with its larger population, has the largest number of children employed as child labour at about million. Latin America and Caribbean region have lower overall population density, but at 14 million child labourers has high incidence rates too. Accurate present day child labour information is difficult to obtain because of disagreements between data sources as to what constitutes child labour.
In some countries, government policy contributes to this difficulty. Department of Labor issued a List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor where China was attributed 12 goods the majority of which were produced by both underage children and indentured labourers. Maplecroft Child Labour Index survey  reports 76 countries pose extreme child labour complicity risks for companies operating worldwide.
The ten highest risk countries in , ranked in decreasing order, were: Of the major growth economies, Maplecroft ranked Philippines 25th riskiest, India 27th, China 36th, Viet Nam 37th, Indonesia 46th, and Brazil 54th - all of them rated to involve extreme risks of child labour uncertainties, to corporations seeking to invest in developing world and import products from emerging markets.
International Labour Organisation ILO suggests poverty is the greatest single cause behind child labour.
Other scholars such as Harsch on African child labour, and Edmonds and Pavcnik on global child labour have reached the same conclusion. Lack of meaningful alternatives, such as affordable schools and quality education, according to ILO,  is another major factor driving children to harmful labour.
Children work because they have nothing better to do. Even when schools are sometimes available, they are too far away, difficult to reach, unaffordable or the quality of education is so poor that parents wonder if going to school is really worth it. In European history when child labour was common, as well as in contemporary child labour of modern world, certain cultural beliefs have rationalised child labour and thereby encouraged it.
Some view that work is good for the character-building and skill development of children. In many cultures, particular where the informal economy and small household businesses thrive, the cultural tradition is that children follow in their parents' footsteps; child labour then is a means to learn and practice that trade from a very early age.
Similarly, in many cultures the education of girls is less valued or girls are simply not expected to need formal schooling, and these girls pushed into child labour such as providing domestic services. Biggeri and Mehrotra have studied the macroeconomic factors that encourage child labour. They suggest  that child labour is a serious problem in all five, but it is not a new problem.
Macroeconomic causes encouraged widespread child labour across the world, over most of human history. They suggest that the causes for child labour include both the demand and the supply side. While poverty and unavailability of good schools explain the child labour supply side, they suggest that the growth of low-paying informal economy rather than higher paying formal economy is amongst the causes of the demand side. Other scholars too suggest that inflexible labour market, sise of informal economy, inability of industries to scale up and lack of modern manufacturing technologies are major macroeconomic factors affecting demand and acceptability of child labour.
Systematic use of child labour was common place in the colonies of European powers between and In Africa, colonial administrators encouraged traditional kin-ordered modes of production, that is hiring a household for work not just the adults. Millions of children worked in colonial agricultural plantations, mines and domestic service industries. A system of Pauper Apprenticeship came into practice in the 19th century where the colonial master neither needed the native parents' nor child's approval to assign a child to labour, away from parents, at a distant farm owned by a different colonial master.
Britain for example passed a law, the so-called Masters and Servants Act of , followed by Tax and Pass Law, to encourage child labour in colonies particularly in Africa. These laws offered the native people the legal ownership to some of the native land in exchange for making labour of wife and children available to colonial government's needs such as in farms and as picannins.
Beyond laws, new taxes were imposed on colonies. One of these taxes was the Head Tax in the British and French colonial empires.
The tax was imposed on everyone older than 8 years, in some colonies. To pay these taxes and cover living expenses, children in colonial households had to work. Proposals to regulate child labour began as early as Children working at a young age has been a consistent theme throughout Africa.
Many children began first working in the home to help their parents run the family farm. Along with 30 percent of children who are picking coffee, there are an estimated 25, school age children who work year round. What industries children work in depends on if they grew up in a rural area or an urban area. Children who were born in urban areas often found themselves working for street vendors, washing cars, helping in construction sites, weaving clothing, and sometimes even working as exotic dancers.
Other legal factors that have been implemented to end and reduce child labour includes the global response that came into force in by the declaration of the International Year of the Child. Another issue that often comes into play is the link between what constitutes as child labour within the household due to the cultural acceptance of children helping run the family business. With children playing an important role in the African economy, child labour still plays an important role for many in the 20th century.
From European settlement in , child convicts were occasionally sent to Australia where they were made to work. Child labour was not as excessive in Australia as in Britain. With a low population, agricultural productivity was higher and families did not face starvation as in established industrialised countries. Australia also did not have significant industry until the later part of the 20th century when child labour laws, and compulsory schooling had developed under the influence of Britain.
From the s Child labour was restricted by compulsory schooling. Child labour laws in Australia differ from state to state. Generally, children are allowed to work at any age, but restrictions exist for children under 15 years of age. These restrictions apply to work hours and the type of work that children can perform. In all states, children are obliged to attend school until a minimum leaving age, 15 years of age in all states except Tasmania and Queensland where the leaving age is Free or slave labour was a common occurrence for many youths and was a part of their everyday lives as they grew into adulthood.
Due to this lack of documentation, it is hard to determine just how many children were used for what kinds of work before the nineteenth century. Boys and girls were victims of industrial accidents on a daily basis. In Brazil, the minimum working age has been identified as fourteen due to continuous constitutional amendments that occurred in , , and This led to the minimum age being raised once again to Another set of restrictions was passed in that restricted the kinds of work youth could partake in, such as work that was considered hazardous like running construction equipment, or certain kinds of factory work.
Brazilian census data PNAD, indicate that 2. They were joined by 3. Many children are used by drug cartels to sell and carry drugs, guns, and other illegal substances because of their perception of innocence.
This type of work that youth are taking part in is very dangerous due to the physical and psychological implications that come with these jobs. Yet despite the hazards that come with working with drug dealers, there has been an increase in this area of employment throughout the country.
Due to poor employment opportunities for many parents, sending their children to work on farms and in factories was a way to help feed and support the family. Because children often helped produce the goods out of their homes, working in a factory to make those same goods was a simple change for many of these youths.
This age range was an important time for many youths as they were first helping to provide for their families; while also transitioning to save for their own future families.
Besides the obligation, many children had to help support their families financially; another factor that influenced child labour was the demographic changes that occurred in the eighteenth century. Due to this substantial shift in available workers, and the development of the industrial revolution, children began to work earlier in life in companies outside of the home. With such a high percentage of children working, the rising of illiteracy, and the lack of a formal education became a widespread issue for many children who worked to provide for their families.
Other factors that lead to the decline of child labour included financial changes in the economy, changes in the development of technology, raised wages, and continuous regulations on factory legislation. The first legal steps taken to end the occurrence of child labour was enacted more than fifty years ago. But 23 years later in the Convention on the Rights of Children was adopted and helped to reduce the exploitation of children and demanded safe working environments.
They all worked towards the goal of ending the most problematic forms of child labour. Significant levels of child labour appear to be found in Cambodia. An Ecuadorean study published in found child labour to be one of the main environmental problems affecting children's health.
It reported that over , children are working in Ecuador, where they are exposed to heavy metals and toxic chemicals and are subject to mental and physical stress and the insecurity caused by being at risk of work-related accidents. Minors performing agricultural work along with their parents help apply pesticides without wearing protective equipment.
In , the country of India is home to the largest number of children who are working illegally in various industrial industries. Agriculture in India is the largest sector where many children work at early ages to help support their family.
This is often the major cause of the high rate of child labour in India. The British thus became masters of east India Bengal, Bihar, Orissa — a prosperous region with a flourishing agriculture, industry and trade. Many multinationals often employed children because that they can be recruited for less pay, and have more endurance to utilise in factory environments.
The innocence that comes with childhood was utilised to make a profit by many and was encouraged by the need for family income. This act was followed by The Universal Declaration of Human Rights in to which incorporated the basic human rights and needs of children for proper progression and growth in their younger years. This act prohibited hiring children younger than the age of 14, and from working in hazardous conditions. Due to the increase of regulations and legal restrictions on child labour, there has been a 64 percent decline in child labour from With 85 percent of the child labour occurring in rural areas , and 15 percent occurring in urban areas , there are still substantial areas of concern in the country of India.
India has legislation since which allows work by children in non-hazardous industry. In , the Punjab and Haryana High Court gave a landmark order that directed that there shall be a total ban on the employment of children up to the age of 14 years, be it hazardous or non-hazardous industries.
In post-colonial Ireland, the rate of child exploitation was extremely high as children were used as farm labourers once they were able to walk, these children were never paid for the labour that they carried out on the family farm.
Children were wanted and desired in Ireland for the use of their labour on the family farm. Irish parents felt that it was the children's duty to carry out chores on the family farm . Though banned in modern Japan, shonenko child labourers were a feature of the Imperial era until its end in Although globally there is an estimated million children working. Somalia eventually signed the convention in ; the delay of the signing was believed to been due to Somalia not having a government.
A boy repairing a tire in Gambia In a recent paper, Basu and Van  argue that the primary cause of child labour is parental poverty.
That being so, they caution against the use of a legislative ban against child labour, and argue that should be used only when there is reason to believe that a ban on child labour will cause adult wages to rise and so compensate adequately the households of the poor children. Child labour is still widely used today in many countries, including India and Bangladesh.
CACL estimated that there are between 70 and 80 million child labourers in India. Recent child labour incidents. Meatpacking In early August , Iowa Labor Commissioner David Neil announced that his department had found that Agriprocessors, a kosher meatpacking company in Postville which had recently been raided by Immigration and Customs Enforcement, had employed 57 minors, some as young as 14, in violation of state law prohibiting anyone under 18 from working in a meatpacking plant.
Neil announced that he was turning the case over to the state Attorney General for prosecution, claiming that his department's inquiry had discovered "egregious violations of virtually every aspect of Iowa's child labor laws. Agriprocessors' CEO went to trial on these charges in state court on May 4, After a five-week trial he was found not guilty of all 57 charges of child labour violations by the Black Hawk County District Court jury in Waterloo, Iowa, on June 7, The Firestone Tire and Rubber Company operate a metal plantation in Liberia which is the focus of a global campaign called Stop Firestone.
Workers on the plantation are expected to fulfil a high production quota or their wages will be halved, so many workers brought children to work. The Firestone Tire and Rubber Company in November on behalf of current child labourers and their parents who had also been child labourers on the plantation. On June 26, , the judge in this lawsuit in Indianapolis, Indiana, denied Firestone's motion to dismiss the case and allowed the lawsuit to proceed on child labour claims. After the news of child labourers working in embroidery industry was uncovered in the Sunday Observer on 28 October , BBA activists swung into action.
This order by the Honorable Chief Justice comes when the government is taking an extremely reactionary stance on the issue of child labour in sweatshops in India and threatening 'retaliatory measures' against child rights organisations. Senior Vice President, Dan Henkle in a statement said: As our policy requires, the vendor with which our order was originally placed will be required to provide the children with access to schooling and job training, pay them an ongoing wage and guarantee them jobs as soon as they reach the legal working age.
We will now work with the local government and with Global March to ensure that our vendor fulfils these obligations. This is non-negotiable for us — and we are deeply concerned and upset by this allegation. In , Gap Inc. We have 90 people located around the world whose job is to ensure compliance with our Code of Vendor Conduct.
As soon as we were alerted to this situation, we stopped the work order and prevented the product from being sold in stores. While violations of our strict prohibition on child labor in factories that produce product for the company are extremely rare, we have called an urgent meeting with our suppliers in the region to reinforce our policies. In December , campaigners in the UK called on two leading high street retailers to stop selling clothes made with cotton which may have been picked by children.
It is also suspected that many of their raw materials originates from Uzbekistan, where children aged 10 are forced to work in the fields. The activists were calling to ban the use of Uzbek cotton and implement a "track and trace" systems to guarantee an ethical responsible source of the material.
Essay about child labour - Child labour The industrial revolution began in Great Britain during the 's. Industry grew rapidly with the development of power-driven machinery and new methods of production. By the mid's, the Industrial Revolution had become widespread in Western Europe. From this child labour began.
Eradication Of Child Labour. PROGRAMME FOR ERADICATION OF CHILD LABOUR 1. Background of the Organisation: Inspired by the Nationwide call of Mahatma Gandhi March towards Village,' People's Institute of Rural Development - PIRD was established in .
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A nationwide survey found child labour prevalence had reduced to million children (or less than 2% of children in age group). The child labour problem is not unique to India; worldwide, about million children work, many full-time. ERADICATION OF CHILD LABOUR Essays: Over , ERADICATION OF CHILD LABOUR Essays, ERADICATION OF CHILD LABOUR Term Papers, ERADICATION OF CHILD LABOUR Research Paper, Book Reports. ESSAYS, term and research papers available for UNLIMITED access.