Some variation occurs natu- rally, while other research designs create variation, as when experi- ments or quasi-experiments are conducted. Many designs, Hedges pointed out, are hybrids that involve some naturally occurring and some artificially created variation.
A classic example is the study of pov- erty in the s, where cross-sectional comparisons largely over- looked the fact that many people cycle in and out of poverty, which leads to quite different understandings of what poverty is and how to address it. In looking for the causes of particular effects, Hedges pointed out that Thomas Cook and Donald Campbell of Northwestern Uni- versity and William Shadish of the University of California, Merced, have developed a framework for thinking about research design.
For example, are the measures being used reliable enough to permit the relation to be observed in the first place, are the analytic methods appropriate for the kind of data that were collected, and were the assumptions made by the analytic procedures met in the data collection process? The classic example is the relation between ice cream sales and the monthly homicide rate in major cities. The two are not causally related, but they both increase as temperature increases.
Another way in which the internal validity of a design can be compromised is when different treatment groups have dif- ferent kinds of students.
If an intervention is identified as causally related to an outcome, would that relation generalize to other settings and other individuals? For example, if researchers work in a setting that is very unusual or with partici- pants that are highly unusual, the results may not generalize.
For example, people who know they are in a control group may try harder just because they are in a control group. Or a control group may be demoralized by having been denied something that they thought was valuable.
Different study designs have different strengths, Hedges pointed out. For example, observational studies that take advantage of natu- rally occurring variation can be subject to confounding variables that threaten their internal validity. But sometimes their internal validity is not high, and they can be difficult to generalize since they often involve small and unusual samples.
Reviewers and other sophisticated critics know that no design is per- fect, and their question to you in evaluating your design is usually whether you know it is imperfect and [whether] you have a strategy. No one person is likely to have all of the skills needed to develop an optimal research design, so a team could involve a research design consultant.
Analyzing the Data The most important thing about the statistical analysis of data, said Kenneth I. Maton, professor of psychology at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County UMBC , is that statistical methods need to be built into a research project from the beginning. Hrabowski III, and C. African American college students excelling in the sciences: College and postcollege outcomes in the Meyerhoff Scholars Program. Journal of Research in Science Teaching 37 7: To reduce these items into a useable scale and relate them to outcomes, he and his colleagues performed what is called a factor analysis, which is a form of data reduction.
There are several ways of conducting such an analysis, but the ultimate result is to show which subsets of items form groups that are more closely associated with other members of the group and less closely associated with the other factors. For example, major aspects of the Meyerhoff program that include finan- cial support, study groups, the summer bridge program, and the quality of interactions with other students in the program form a cluster.
Interest- ingly, the summer research activities were not closely associated with either set of items, thus constituting a unique and separate aspect of the student experience. Another form of data analysis is to compare the experiences and outcomes of different groups.
For example, the Meyerhoff program was originally designed for African Americans, but concern about possible legal challenges led to the program being offered to oth- ers as well. One analysis of the program compared the experiences of African Americans with those of other groups, including Asian American and white students, with the hypothesis being that Afri- can Americans would have a greater sense of support and belonging from the program since it was designed for them.
But the compari- son revealed that the groups scored equally on this measure. In this case, the researchers used a technique called chi square analysis to determine whether this difference is statistically significant. They also were able to look at other possible factors between the two groups of students that might have contributed to this difference besides their experiences in the program, such as differences in grade point averages, parental socioeconomic class, and so on.
They then used an analysis of covariance to study whether some of these factors might have been confounding variables. For example, Maton pointed out, analysis of covariance could identify temperature as the confounding variable in a study relating level of ice cream sales to homicide rates, as described by Hedges in an earlier presentation.
Another important research focus is predictors of outcome, which measures whether a given variable contributes to an outcome. Mul- tiple linear regression analysis is used to examine which predic- tor variables contribute to a continuous outcome, whereas logistic regression analysis is used to examine the relationship between predictor variables and categorical outcomes. For example, a logis- tic regression analysis showed that African American Meyerhoff students, who had lower average SAT scores, were just as likely to gain entrance into a doctoral program as white and Asian American students.
In addition, Maton stressed the value of combining quantitative data with qualitative data: Through a very labor intensive process, codes are developed to analyze the transcript contents. For example, the codes used in a study of educational interventions might relate to the mention of self-efficacy beliefs, a sense of belonging, mentoring, or the presence of role models. The interviews are analyzed, coded, and rechecked.
Themes are developed that connect the codes, including negative cases where researchers scour the data set for counterexamples. Software packages bring power to these analyses, because these packages can systematically pull up material that is coded in par- ticular ways.
Any one piece of work, and any one person, should aim for a judicious balance, formalizing subproblems that seem to cry for it while keeping honest to the Big Picture.. Some work is like science. You look at how people learn arithmetic, how the brain works, how kangaroos hop, and try to figure it out and make a testable theory.
Some work is like engineering: Some work is like mathematics: Some work is example-driven, trying to explain specific phenomena. The best work combines all these and more.. Read how other people attacked similar problems, and talk to people about how they proceeded in specific cases. What is a statement of the problem in research methodology? For research methodology, a problem statement is a clear description of the issue for a particular topic.
It can include a vision and a method used to solve the problem. What is the difference between research methodology and research methods? Methodology is the science of methods.
An example would be 'efforts should be made to ensure that all energy sources and sinks are accounted for' Methods are just what to do 'insert tube A into Stopper B' Research Methods vs Research Methodology Research Methods and Research Methodology are two terms that are often confused as one and the same.
Strictly speaking they are not so and they show differences between them. One of the primary differences between them is that research methods are the methods by which you conduct research into a subject or a topic. On the other hand research methodology explains the methods by which you may proceed with your research. Research methods involve conduct of experiments, tests, surveys and the like. On the other hand research methodology involves the learning of the various techniques that can be used in the conduct of research and in the conduct of tests, experiments, surveys and critical studies.
This is the technical difference between the two terms, namely, research methods and research methodology. In short it can be said that research methods aim at finding solutions to research problems. On the other hand research methodology aims at the employment of the correct procedures to find out solutions. It is thus interesting to note that research methodology paves the way for research methods to be conducted properly.
Research methodology is the beginning whereas research methods are the end of any scientific or non-scientific research. Let us take for example a subject or a topic, namely, 'employment of figures of speech in English literature'. In this topic if we are to conduct research, then the research methods that are involved are study of various works of the different poets and the understanding of the employment of figures of speech in their works.
On the other hand research methodology pertaining to the topic mentioned above involves the study about the tools of research, collation of various manuscripts related to the topic, techniques involved in the critical edition of these manuscripts and the like.
If the subject into which you conduct a research is a scientific subject or topic then the research methods include experiments, tests, study of various other results of different experiments performed earlier in relation to the topic or the subject and the like. On the other hand research methodology pertaining to the scientific topic involves the techniques regarding how to go about conducting the research, the tools of research, advanced techniques that can be used in the conduct of the experiments and the like.
Any student or research candidate is supposed to be good at both research methods and research methodology if he or she is to succeed in his or her attempt at conducting research into a subject. Distinguish between Research Methods and Research Methodology? Interesting question, as many have the impression that both are same. However, both are two separate concepts with an entirely different meaning.
The primary difference between the two is that Research methods is the method using which you carry on your research with regards to a particular topic whereas Research methodology is a logical explanation of these methods. Research methods may include using experiments, surveys and tests used to conduct research.
On the other hand, Research methodology includes critical study of different techniques using which a research can be conducted. In short, research method is about solving a given problem whereas research methodology deals with finding solutions to solve a particular problem. What is a Quasi Research Design in Research methodology? Quasi-Experimental Designs fair better than pre-experimental studies in that they employ a means to compare groups, but lacks the key ingredient random assignment.
What is empirical review in research methodology? In dissertation or thesis work, the empherical literature review is usually the second chapter of both the proposal and the final paper. In this chapter, the author reviews the information and theories currently available concerning the topic and the historical background of the topic.
The point is to do two things. Second, it is to show that the problem being studied has not be done before or has not been done before in the way proposed by the candidate. The literature review may also contain a review of information concerning the chosen conceptual framework, to show it is appropriate, and the methodology, although most of this information is usually saved for the appropriate sections in chapters 1 and 3 of the paper.
Scope of managerial research in research methodology? Managerial economics may be viewed as economics applied to problem solving at the levels of the firm. The problem relates to choices and allocation of resources, which are basically economic in nature and are faced by managers all the time.
Managerial research is also known as operations research. It was undertaken for the first time in Second World War in America. It is also interdisciplinary research done by mathematicians, tacticians, Engineers and other Scientists. The operation researchers developed concepts of linear programming, inventory models and game theory. They attempted to attain optimization. The framework of optimization has been used a great deal in managerial economics.
The operation research has influenced managerial economics through its new concepts and models for dealing risk and uncertainly. Managerial economics it primarily an aid to analyse and decision making in the context of the firm. But in the management more than decision making, the implementation, control and conflict resolutions are also covered. Managerial research is concerned with decision making at the managerial level it considers the alternative theories of firm behaviour, decision making problems and different approaches to arrive at the most appropriate answers to such problems.
It draws heavily from Microeconomics, Econometrics and operation research. The decision making area is related to the production decisions, the exchange decisions and consumption decisions. The case study method is useful in managerial research. It helps us to look for and organised the data and evidence relevant to the problem at hand.
A manager does not get all data he needs well organised and presented to him on a platter. The cases may bring out the complexity of the environment in which managers have to take decisions. What are the characteristics of a good methodology of technical research? What is the Meaning of research methodology? Distinguish the difference between research method and research methodology?
Method is a particular way of solving a specific problem. Methodology, therefore, means the collection of methods you used in a particular piece of research.. What is comparative research methodology? What is the difference between research design and methodology?
The difference between research design and methodology is in theirmeaning. Research design is the model used for the research whilemethodology refers to the specific methods used. What are the limitation of research methodology? Research methodology has been debated and discussed by historians and scientists alike for hundreds of years. What they can agree upon is that research is only limited to the extent of what is being researched.
Problems encountered by researchers in India on research methodology? In India most of the problems faced by researchers are non availability of proper resources and also the guide is the major problem for researchers because many of the time they won't co-operate with our view and decision.
What is editing in research methodology? At the stage of Analysis of Data: After data collection, the task of analyzing is to be done. It will not help you to prepare a precise research plan, but just define the elements that should be part of a research plan The research plan has to be defined in an early stage of your research.
It explains the "what" and the "how" of your research. Writing a serious research plan may have a strong impact on your [[ research subject.
A research plan must include a few important elements, like important "definitions", the general approach, a literature review, conceptual frameworks, the research questions and maybe the hypothesis, etc. We shall discuss most of these in this module.
You can't write a research plan without having a clear picture of the work that is needed to implement it:. Such a strategy will lower the risk of getting stuck and also help you to estimate resources basically time you will need!
You may have to adapt this list to fit formal requirements from your institution. In addition methodology constraints will tell you how to organize these elements. As you will see later, various research types are implemented with somewhat different logic and that will translate to a different form of presentation. At the very beginning you must must state "the big question", i.
The research methodology is the most crucial step of the research design process. It’s the blueprint for the collection, measurement, and analysis of the data. Once completed, always keep the blueprint, or t he Methodology Brief available for easy reference.
A key part of research is the primary research. This is research which is undertaken first hand. The researcher can carry out primary research in a number of ways which include: * Questionnaires * Interviews * Questions on message boards * Observations * Analysis of the text.
Elements of methodology 1. Philip Adu, Ph.D. Methodology Expert Instructor National Center for Academic & Dissertation Excellence (NCADE) The Chicago School of Professional Psychology 8 Elements In A Research Proposal Azmi Latiff. Conducting Qualitative Research. Based on your research proposal's methodology, And now that you have reviewed all of the Elements of the Research Proposal, it is time to start planning for your own. The unit is designed to teach students about the Elements of a Research Proposal as well as to provide multiple models for students as they prepare to write their own.
Research as Method of Science Evolution of Human Thinking Man has appealed to the following sources of evidence in his search for truth. Custom and tradition. Authority. pdf version of this page This review covers the basic elements of a research report. This is a general guide for what you will see in journal articles or dissertations. This format assumes a mixed methods study, but you can leave out either quantitative or qualitative sections if you only used a single methodology. This.