When the matter was raised in the Parliament of the United Kingdom , the British Government denied any role in Rai's death. Contemporary reaction to the killing differs substantially from the adulation that later surfaced. The Naujawan Bharat Sabha, which had organised the Lahore protest march along with the HSRA, found that attendance at its subsequent public meetings dropped sharply.
Politicians, activists, and newspapers, including The People , which Rai had founded in , stressed that non-co-operation was preferable to violence. Bhagat Singh did not become popular because of his act of terrorism but because he seemed to vindicate, for the moment, the honour of Lala Lajpat Rai, and through him of the nation.
He became a symbol, the act was forgotten, the symbol remained, and within a few months each town and village of the Punjab, and to a lesser extent in the rest of northern India, resounded with his name. Innumerable songs grew about him and the popularity that the man achieved was something amazing. After killing Saunders, the group escaped through the D. College entrance, across the road from the District Police Headquarters.
Chanan Singh, a Head Constable who was chasing them, was fatally injured by Chandrashekhar Azad's covering fire. The police launched a massive search operation to catch them, blocking all entrances and exits to and from the city; the CID kept a watch on all young men leaving Lahore. The fugitives hid for the next two days. They decided to catch the train departing from Lahore to Bathinda en route to Howrah Calcutta early the next morning. Singh and Rajguru, both carrying loaded revolvers, left the house early the next day.
At the station, Singh managed to conceal his identity while buying tickets, and the three boarded the train heading to Cawnpore now Kanpur.
There they boarded a train for Lucknow since the CID at Howrah railway station usually scrutinised passengers on the direct train from Lahore. For some time, Singh had been exploiting the power of drama as a means to inspire the revolt against the British, purchasing a magic lantern to show slides that enlivened his talks about revolutionaries such as Ram Prasad Bismil who had died as a result of the Kakori conspiracy.
In , he proposed a dramatic act to the HSRA intended to gain massive publicity for their aims. The nominal intention was to protest against the Public Safety Bill, and the Trade Dispute Act, which had been rejected by the Assembly but were being enacted by the Viceroy using his special powers; the actual intention was for the perpetrators to allow themselves to be arrested so that they could use court appearances as a stage to publicise their cause. The HSRA leadership was initially opposed to Bhagat's participation in the bombing because they were certain that his prior involvement in the Saunders shooting meant that his arrest would ultimately result in his execution.
However, they eventually decided that he was their most suitable candidate. On 8 April , Singh, accompanied by Batukeshwar Dutt, threw two bombs into the Assembly chamber from its public gallery while it was in session.
Instead, they stayed shouting the slogan " Inquilab Zindabad! The two men were arrested and subsequently moved through a series of jails in Delhi. According to Neeti Nair, associate professor of history, "public criticism of this terrorist action was unequivocal. We hold human life sacred beyond words. We are neither perpetrators of dastardly outrages Force when aggressively applied is 'violence' and is, therefore, morally unjustifiable, but when it is used in the furtherance of a legitimate cause, it has its moral justification.
The trial began in the first week of June, following a preliminary hearing in May. On 12 June, both men were sentenced to life imprisonment for: One key discrepancy concerns the automatic pistol that Singh had been carrying when he was arrested.
Some witnesses said that he had fired two or three shots while the police sergeant who arrested him testified that the gun was pointed downward when he took it from him and that Singh "was playing with it. Not long after this, the Saharanpur factory was also raided and some of the conspirators became informants. With the new information available, the police were able to connect the three strands of the Saunders murder, Assembly bombing, and bomb manufacture.
Singh was re-arrested for murdering Saunders and Chanan Singh based on substantial evidence against him, including statements by his associates, Hans Raj Vohra and Jai Gopal.
He considered himself, along with others, to be a political prisoner. He noted that he had received an enhanced diet at Delhi which was not being provided at Mianwali.
He led other Indian, self-identified political prisoners he felt were being treated as common criminals in a hunger strike. They demanded equality in food standards, clothing, toiletries, and other hygienic necessities, as well as access to books and a daily newspaper.
They argued that they should not be forced to do manual labour or any undignified work in the jail. The hunger strike inspired a rise in public support for Singh and his colleagues from around June The Tribune newspaper was particularly prominent in this movement and reported on mass meetings in places such as Lahore and Amritsar. The government had to apply Section of the criminal code in an attempt to limit gatherings. Jawaharlal Nehru met Singh and the other strikers in Mianwali jail.
After the meeting, he stated:. I was very much pained to see the distress of the heroes. They have staked their lives in this struggle. They want that political prisoners should be treated as political prisoners.
I am quite hopeful that their sacrifice would be crowned with success. Muhammad Ali Jinnah spoke in support of the strikers in the Assembly, saying:. The man who goes on hunger strike has a soul. He is moved by that soul, and he believes in the justice of his cause The government tried to break the strike by placing different food items in the prison cells to test the prisoners' resolve. Water pitchers were filled with milk so that either the prisoners remained thirsty or broke their strike; nobody faltered and the impasse continued.
The authorities then attempted force-feeding the prisoners but this was resisted. Singh was transported to Borstal Jail, Lahore,  and the trial began there on 10 July In addition to charging them with the murder of Saunders, Singh and the 27 other prisoners were charged with plotting a conspiracy to murder Scott, and waging a war against the King. The government was beginning to make concessions but refused to move on the core issue of recognising the classification of "political prisoner".
In the eyes of officials, if someone broke the law then that was a personal act, not a political one, and they were common criminals. The Jail committee recommended his unconditional release, but the government rejected the suggestion and offered to release him on bail. On 13 September , Das died after a day hunger strike. Mohammad Alam and Gopi Chand Bhargava resigned from the Punjab Legislative Council in protest, and Nehru moved a successful adjournment motion in the Central Assembly as a censure against the "inhumane treatment" of the Lahore prisoners.
Singh's attention now turned to his trial, where he was to face a Crown prosecution team comprising C. Prem Dutt Verma, the youngest amongst the 27 accused, threw his slipper at Gopal when he turned and became a prosecution witness in court. As a result, the magistrate ordered that all the accused should be handcuffed. This was a setback for Singh as he could no longer use the trial as a forum to publicise his views. To speed up the slow trial, the Viceroy, Lord Irwin, declared an emergency on 1 May and introduced an ordinance to set up a special tribunal composed of three high court judges for the case.
This decision cut short the normal process of justice as the only appeal after the tribunal was to the Privy Council located in England. On 2 July , a habeas corpus petition was filed in the High Court challenging the ordinance on the grounds that it was ultra vires and, therefore, illegal; the Viceroy had no powers to shorten the customary process of determining justice.
However, the petition was dismissed as being premature. Carden-Noad presented the government's charges of conducting robberies, and the illegal acquisition of arms and ammunition among others. Hamilton Harding, the Lahore superintendent of police, shocked the court.
He stated that he had filed the first information report against the accused under specific orders from the chief secretary to the governor of Punjab and that he was unaware of the details of the case.
The prosecution depended mainly on the evidence of P. On 10 July , the tribunal decided to press charges against only 15 of the 18 accused and allowed their petitions to be taken up for hearing the next day. The trial ended on 30 September The ordinance and the tribunal would lapse on 31 October as it had not been passed by the Central Assembly or the British Parliament.
On 7 October , the tribunal delivered its page judgement based on all the evidence and concluded that the participation of Singh, Sukhdev, and Rajguru in Saunder's murder was proven. They were sentenced to death by hanging. In Punjab province , a defence committee drew up a plan to appeal to the Privy Council. Singh was initially against the appeal but later agreed to it in the hope that the appeal would popularise the HSRA in Britain.
The appellants claimed that the ordinance which created the tribunal was invalid while the government countered that the Viceroy was completely empowered to create such a tribunal.
The appeal was dismissed by Judge Viscount Dunedin. After the rejection of the appeal to the Privy Council, Congress party president Madan Mohan Malviya filed a mercy appeal before Irwin on 14 February While returning Gandhiji asked me if he could talk about the case of Bhagat Singh because newspapers had come out with the news of his slated hanging on March 24th.
It would be a very unfortunate day because on that day the new president of the Congress had to reach Karachi and there would be a lot of hot discussion. I explained to him that I had given a very careful thought to it but I did not find any basis to convince myself to commute the sentence. It appeared he found my reasoning weighty. The Communist Party of Great Britain expressed its reaction to the case:. The history of this case, of which we do not come across any example in relation to the political cases, reflects the symptoms of callousness and cruelty which is the outcome of bloated desire of the imperialist government of Britain so that fear can be instilled in the hearts of the repressed people.
Singh, Rajguru and Sukhdev were sentenced to death in the Lahore conspiracy case and ordered to be hanged on 24 March The schedule was moved forward by 11 hours and the three were hanged on 23 March at 7: It is reported that no magistrate at the time was willing to supervise Singh's hanging as was required by law. The execution was supervised instead by an honorary judge, who also signed the three death warrants, as their original warrants had expired.
Singh's trial has been described by the Supreme Court as "contrary to the fundamental doctrine of criminal jurisprudence" because there was no opportunity for the accused to defend themselves. The executions were reported widely by the press, especially as they took place on the eve of the annual convention of the Congress party at Karachi. A reign of terror in the city of Cawnpore in the United Provinces and an attack on Mahatma Gandhi by a youth outside Karachi were among the answers of the Indian extremists today to the hanging of Bhagat Singh and two fellow-assassins.
Hartals and strikes of mourning were called. While dissociating itself from and disapproving of political violence in any shape or form, this Congress places on record its admiration of the bravery and sacrifice of Bhagat Singh, Sukh Dev and Raj Guru and mourns with their bereaved families the loss of these lives. The Congress is of the opinion that their triple execution was an act of wanton vengeance and a deliberate flouting of the unanimous demand of the nation for commutation.
This Congress is further of the opinion that the [British] Government lost a golden opportunity for promoting good-will between the two nations, admittedly held to be crucial at this juncture, and for winning over to methods of peace a party which, driven to despair, resorts to political violence. Bhagat Singh and his two associates have been hanged. The Congress made many attempts to save their lives and the Government entertained many hopes of it, but all has been in a vain.
Bhagat Singh did not wish to live. He refused to apologise, or even file an appeal. Bhagat Singh was not a devotee of non-violence, but he did not subscribe to the religion of violence. He took to violence due to helplessness and to defend his homeland. In his last letter, Bhagat Singh wrote, " I have been arrested while waging a war.
For me there can be no gallows. Put me into the mouth of a cannon and blow me off. Let us bow to them a thousand times for their heroism. But we should not imitate their act. In our land of millions of destitute and crippled people, if we take to the practice of seeking justice through murder, there will be a terrifying situation. Our poor people will become victims of our atrocities. By making a dharma of violence, we shall be reaping the fruit of our own actions.
Hence, though we praise the courage of these brave men, we should never countenance their activities. Our dharma is to swallow our anger, abide by the discipline of non-violence and carry out our duty. There have been suggestions that Gandhi had an opportunity to stop Singh's execution but refrained from doing so. Another theory is that Gandhi actively conspired with the British to have Singh executed. In contrast, Gandhi's supporters argue that he did not have enough influence with the British to stop the execution, much less arrange it,  but claim that he did his best to save Singh's life.
He also stated that he was opposed to Singh's execution and for that matter, capital punishment in general and proclaimed that he had no power to stop it. However, there are some rights which do credit to those who possess them only if they are enjoyed in name only. God alone can take life, because he alone gives it. In a letter to the Viceroy on the day of their execution, he pleaded fervently for commutation, not knowing that the letter would arrive too late. As I listened to Mr.
Gandhi putting the case for commutation before me, I reflected first on what significance it surely was that the apostle of non-violence should so earnestly be pleading the cause of the devotees of a creed so fundamentally opposed to his own, but I should regard it as wholly wrong to allow my judgement to be influenced by purely political considerations. I could not imagine a case in which under the law, penalty had been more directly deserved.
Singh's ideal was Kartar Singh Sarabha. He regarded Kartar Singh, the founding-member of the Ghadar Party as his hero. Bhagat was also inspired by Bhai Parmanand , another founding-member of the Ghadar Party. From May to September , Singh published a series of articles on anarchism in Kirti. He was concerned that the public misunderstood the concept of anarchism, writing that: The word anarchism has been abused so much that even in India revolutionaries have been called anarchist to make them unpopular.
The ultimate goal of Anarchism is complete independence, according to which no one will be obsessed with God or religion, nor will anybody be crazy for money or other worldly desires. There will be no chains on the body or control by the state. This means that they want to eliminate: Panikkar described Singh as one of the early Marxists in India.
In his prison notebooks, he quoted Lenin in reference to imperialism and capitalism and also the revolutionary thoughts of Trotsky.
Young, aggressive and influential among youth, Bhagat singh soon became a focal point for the government and police and was arrested in a bombing case. He was later released after five months. On 30 October , Lala Lajpat Rai led a massive protest and marched towards the Lahore railway station to protest against the arrival of the Simon Commission. Scott, the Superintendent of Police, believed to have ordered the lathi charge but mistakenly killed JP Saunders. In response to the formulation of Defence of India Act, the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association planned to explode a bomb inside the assembly premises, where the ordinance was going to be passed.
The bomb was not meant to kill or injure anyone and therefore it was thrown away from the crowded place, but still several council members were injured in the commotion.
Following the blasts Bhagat Singh and his associated were arrested and put on trial and was later sentenced to death.
On March 23, , 7: His sacrifice fueled Indian freedom movement which ultimately met success in The life of Bhagat Singh remains as one of shining examples of patriotism, commitment and sacrifice. Vande Matharam Thank you. Your email address will not be published.
Bhagat Singh is considered to be one of the most influential revolutionaries of the Indian Independence Movement. Bhagat Singh was born on September 27, , in a Sikh family in KhatkarKalan, Punjab, in British India. His grandfather Arjan Singh, father Kishan Singh and uncleAjit Singh, were all active in the freedom struggle.
Bhagat Singh was a prominent freedom fighter and an inspirational icon in the Indian freedom struggle. He gave a new direction to the National Movement against the British rule. He gave a new direction to the National Movement against the British rule.
Bhagat Singh Essay – 5 ( words) Popularly referred to as Shaheed Bhagat Singh, this outstanding revolutionary was born as Bhaganwala on the 28 th of September, in a Sandhu Jat family in Punjab’s Jullunder Doab district. He joined the struggle for freedom at an early age and died a martyr at a young age of Mar 11, · Tips for Essay on Bhagat Singh Double check the facts and stats in your information such as important figures, dates, and persons. If you are not able to remember a word, simply use the synonyms for that word/5(11).
Bhagat Singh was an iconic Indian revolutionary who is considered as one of the most influential figures during the Indian Freedom Movement. He was born in to Kishan Singh and Vidyavati in the Punjab Province. Siddharth played the role of Bhagat singh in the film Rang De Basanti, a film drawing parallels between revolutionaries of Bhagat Singh's era and modern Indian youth. Gurdas Mann played the role of Singh in Shaheed Udham Singh, a .