An atom is classified according to the number of protons and neutrons in its nucleus: Atom is defined as the very small particle. The atoms are having many chemical properties of the elements. The atoms structure are having the nucleus at its center. The electrons are also present in the atom. The electron is always surrounds the nucleus part. The particles like protons and neutrons are also present in the atom. The atom diagram structure consists of three types of particles. They are defined below the following,.
The protons present in the atom are having a positive charge. The positive charge is equal to the negative charge present in the electrons. The number of particles present in the atoms is used for the representation of the atomic number. Protons are times greater than the electrons. The proton structure is discovered by the scientist named Ernest Rutherford. The electrons are having the negative charges. The electrons cannot able to split into the further particles. The electrons move freely in the diagram of an atom.
The electron forms the electron clouds. The charge of the neutron present in the atom is having neutral charge. The neutrons present in the atom are used to represent the isotope of the element. Metals are large structures of atoms, in which these atoms are bonded to each other by strong metallic bonds. In this atomic structure one metal is surrounded by the different number of atoms, the number of atom surrounded by particular atom is called as coordination number.
Metal has 12, 8, 6 co-ordination number. All the properties of metals are depends on the metal atomic structure. The different properties of metals are given as follows: The boiling and melting points of metals are very high. This is because of the strength of the metallic bond. The strength of metallic bond is different for different metals.
It also depends on the number of electrons which each atom delocalizes into the ocean of electrons. It means that melting and boiling points depends on metal atomic structure. The atomic structure of metals is responsible for this property, electrical conductivity. In three-dimensional space, the delocalized electrons of the metal are free to move and even they can cross boundaries.
Liquid metals are also good conductor of electricity. Therefore, electrical conductivity of metal depends on metal atomic structure. This decides up to how much power any metal conduct electricity. The atomic structure of metals also gives the information that metals are very good conductors of heat.
The electrons pick up the heat energy as the additional kinetic energy and hence, the electrons move faster. Thus, the heat energy is to the whole metal by the movement of these electrons. Metals are termed as malleable, i. Atomic structure of metal can explain this property. Atoms in the metals can roll over one other into new positions with no breaking of any metallic bond.
In , Neils Bohr proposed a model of an atom based on the Planck's quantum theory of radiation. The basic postulates of Bohr's theory are:. Bohr's atomic model explained successfully: The stability of an atom. Bohr postulated that as long an electron remains in a particular orbit it does not emit radiation i. Hence it does not become unstable. The atomic spectrum of hydrogen was explained due to the concept of definite energy levels.
It can absorb a definite amount of energy and jump to a higher energy state. This excited state being unstable, the electron comes back to a lower energy level. When the energy emitted during transition, strikes a photographic plate, it gives its impression in the form of a line. For example, if the electron jumps down from the third to the first energy level having energies E 3 and E 1 respectively, then the wavelength of the spectral line would be.
Similarly, when the electron jumps down from the fourth to the first energy level having energies E 4 and E 1 respectively or from the fifth to the second i. Larger atoms of any other element can similarly have the same number of electrons and therefore protons but differing numbers of neutrons and therefore protons but differing number of neutrons in their nuclei, and therefore differing atomic weights.
These are called isotopes of the element; hence deuterium is an isotope of hydrogen. This explains why atomic weights are not whole numbers; they are made up of a number of different atomic weights, i.
The number of electrons in the atom of a particular element is, however, constant; this is the atomic number of the element and it is also the number of protons in the nucleus. When the elements are arranged in order of atomic number, the anomalies in the atomic weight periodic classification disappear; hence the modern periodic classification is based upon the atomic number and upon the arrangement of the electrons in the various shells, since it is these extranuclear electrons which determine the chemical behaviour of an atom.
The next element, of atomic number 3, lithium, has the third electron in the next shell L, and this shell fills up as we cross Period 2 of the Periodic Table, until at neon it is full with eight electrons. Across Period 3, the M shell fills up from one electron at sodium to eight at argon; hence we describe the electron configuration of argon as 2.
In period 4, the shell begins to fill, first one electron for potassium, then two for calcium; but then further electrons go into the inner M shell, and this now fills up from scandium across to zinc; the outer shell meanwhile retains two electrons in all these transition elements. Then in each period, the inner shell fills to give a further series of transition elements and finally the filling of the outer shell is resumed to complete each period. The filling of the shells in the Period Table is summarized in the table below; the actual arrangement of the electrons for individual elements is given at the head of the appropriate ending.
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The Atomic Structure chapter of this AP Chemistry Homework Help course helps students complete their atomic structure homework and earn better grades. This homework help resource uses simple and fun videos that are about five minutes long.
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