Sigmund was a brilliant child and eventually went to medical school — which was one of the more viable choices for a Jewish boy in Vienna. He became involved in research under the direction of a physiology professor — Ernst Brucke. Brucke believed in reductionism: Freud was very successful with his research, especially neurophysiology, and invented a special cell staining technique. While he was successful with what he had accomplished, there were limited available positions available and Brucke helped him receive a grant to enable his to study with the great psychiatrist in Charcot in Paris and then late his rival Bernheim in Nancy.
Both studied the use of hypnosis with hysterics. After spending a short time as a resident in neurology in Berlin, he returned home to his fiancee, Martha Bernays, and set up a small practice in neuropsychiatry with the help of Joseph Breuer. He drew a number of very bright supporters who became the core of the psychoanalytic movement.
September 23,, Freud died of cancer of the mouth and jaw that he had suffered from the last 20 years of his life. Sigmund Freud had numerous theories over the course of his career; the ones that I will be discussing are only a few. Freud did not create the idea of the conscious versus the conscious mind, however he was responsible for making it popular. The conscious mind in what you are aware of at any particular moment, your present perceptions, memories, thoughts, fantasies and feelings.
The largest part, however, being the un-conscious. The unconscious includes things that are not easily available to awareness, including out drives or instincts and things that we cannot bear to look at, such as memories and emotions associated with trauma. The id, the ego and the superego are another well-known theory that plays off of the conscious and un-conscious mind.
Freudian psychology begins with a world full of objects. Among them is a very special object, the organism. An extremely important part of the organism is the nervous system. The id, or the nervous system, translates the needs of the organism into motivational forces, or otherwise called the primary process. An example, a screaming newborn does not realize that it needs food; it only understands that it needs something now.
This is called the secondary process. The ego then struggles to keep the id, or the organism, happy. The ego keeps record of the obstacles, aids, rewards and punishments, and from there forms the superego.
This theory is usually not complete until the age of seven, if ever. There are two aspects of the superego: The conscious is an internalization of punishments and warnings. The ego ideal derives from rewards and positive models presented to the child. The conscious and the superego communicate their requirements to the ego with feelings like pride, shame, and guilt.
Often, at the outset of the cocaine effect, the subjects alleged that they experienced an intense feeling of heat in the head. I noticed this in myself as well in the course of some later experiments, but on other occasions it was absent.
In only two cases did coca give rise to dizziness. On the whole the toxic effects of coca are of short duration, and much less intense than those produced by effective doses of quinine or salicylate of soda; they seem to become even weaker after repeated use of cocaine. There are said to be people who cannot tolerate coca at all; on the other hand, I have found not a few who remained unaffected by 5cg, which for me and others is an effective dose.
The feeling of excitement which accompanies stimulus by alcohol is completely lacking; the characteristic urge for immediate activity which alcohol produces is also absent. One senses an increase of self-control and feels more vigorous and more capable of work; on the other hand, if one works, one misses that heightening of the mental powers which alcohol, tea, or coffee induce. One is simply normal, and soon finds it difficult to believe that one is under the influence of any drug at all.
I have tested this effect of coca, which wards off hunger, sleep, and fatigue and steels one to intellectual effort, some dozen times on myself; I had no opportunity to engage in physical work. The effect of a moderate dose of coca fades away so gradually that, in normal circumstances, it is difficult to define its duration. If one works intensively while under the influence of coca, after from three to five hours there is a decline in the feeling of well-being, and a further dose of coca is necessary in order to ward off fatigue.
The effect of coca seems to last longer if no heavy muscular work is undertaken. Opinion is unanimous that the euphoria induced by coca is not followed by any feeling of lassitude or other state of depression. I should be inclined to think that after moderate doses 0. In my own case, at any rate, I have noticed that even on the day after taking coca my condition compares favorably with the norm.
I should be inclined to explain the possibility of a lasting gain in strength, such as has often been claimed for coca by the totality of such effects. It seems probable, in the light of reports which I shall refer to later, that coca, if used protractedly but in moderation, is not detrimental to the body.
Arranged chronologically largely by year of first publication and therein according to the bibliographic sequence established by James Strachey in Indexes and Bibliographies , volume 24 of The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud London: Because of the large format of many of these items, the material has been filed in the Oversize series. The writings range chronologically from an article on Freud's early research on eels to portions of his last major work, Der Mann Moses und die monotheistische Religion, published shortly before his death.
Included in the series are articles, case histories, portions of books, published letters, lecture notes, prefaces, introductions, a travel journal, chronologies, obituaries, bibliographic notes, and casual jottings.
Interviews with Freud associates, patients, and family members conducted by K. Eissler, a founder and longtime secretary of the Sigmund Freud Archives, and recollections about Freud contained in correspondence, writings, and notes sent to or collected by Eissler.
Arranged in two parts: Set A contains interviews and recollections that opened in the years prior to , and Set B contains interviews that became fully opened in October Material within each set is organized as interviews and recollections and alphabetically therein by name of individual.
Most of the interviews date from the s. Included are transcripts, some with corrections by the interviewee, and summaries of interviews, usually made when the subject requested that the interview not be tape recorded. Also included in the series are recollections about Freud contained in letters, writings, and notes either addressed to or collected by Eissler.
Correspondence, exhibit material, photographs, a case history, an index, lists, and printed matter. Arranged in groupings that correspond to other series in the collection and therein alphabetically by name of person or organization, topic, or type of material. Digitized within this series are photocopies of Freud's correspondence with writer Arnold Zweig, derestricted in and filed in the Addition rather than in the General Correspondence series because of the volume of the material.
The legibility of the photocopies varies considerably. Omitted from the digital edition is posthumous, supplemental material about Freud's life and work. Pocket watch, a small Greek statue, and an oil portrait painting of Freud.
Arranged by type of material. The series contains Freud's pocket watch which he gave to his personal physician Max Schur and a small Greek statue which Freud kept on his desk and later gave to Angelika Frink. Presented here are photographs of both artifacts from multiple views. Also included are photographs of an original oil portrait of Freud by Wilhelm Victor Krausz contained in the collection. Writings, university and military records, legal documents, correspondence, patient case files, notes, exhibit material, newspaper clippings, family tree, sketch, photograph, and map and chart.
Arranged and described according to the series, containers, and folders from which the items were removed. This series contains material removed from its original series because of its large physical size. The bulk of the series consists of Freud's writings which are housed in their entirety in this series because of their large format.
Omitted from the digital edition is the posthumous material from the Supplemental File series. Good conduct certificate written for Jacob and Amalia Freud,
Sigmund Freud Papers Manuscript Division 2,; Sigmund Freud Papers: General Correspondence, to ; Sigmund Freud Papers: Interviews and Recollections, to ; Sigmund Freud Papers: Oversize, to ; Sigmund Freud Papers: Family Papers, to ; Sigmund Freud Papers: .
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About this Collection Digitization of this collection was made possible by The Polonsky Foundation. The papers of psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud () span the years from about the 6th century B.C.E. (a small Greek statue) to , with the bulk of material dating from to - Sigmund Freud Sigmund Freud was the first major social scientist to propose a unified theory to understand and explain human behavior. No theory that has followed has been more complete, more complex, or more controversial.
Allied to the Sigmund Freud Collection at the Library of Congress are papers and correspondence of other eminent psychoanalysts, including Anna Freud, Jacob Arlow, Heinz Hartmann, E. Jacobson, etc. The SFA was one of the original trustees of the Freud Museum in London. Sigmund Freud research paper writing prompts. Writing prompts can be extremely useful when you have to write a research paper or just your weekly homework.