Begin the list on a new page. The list contains the same running head as the main text. The page numbering in the running head continues uninterrupted throughout. For example, if the text of your research paper including any endnotes ends on page 10, the works-cited list begins on page Center the title, Works Cited , an inch from the top of the page fig. If the list contains only one entry, make the heading Work Cited. Double-space between the title and the first entry.
Begin each entry flush with the left margin; if an entry runs more than one line, indent the subsequent line or lines half an inch from the left margin. This format is sometimes called hanging indention , and you can set your writing program to create it automatically for a group of paragraphs. Hanging indention makes alphabetical lists easier to use. Double-space the entire list. Continue it on as many pages as necessary.
Place tables and illustrations as close as possible to the parts of the text to which they relate. A table is usually labeled Table , given an arabic numeral, and titled. Type both label and title flush left on separate lines above the table, and capitalize them as titles do not use all capital letters.
Give the source of the table and any notes immediately below the table in a caption. To avoid confusion between notes to the text and notes to the table, designate notes to the table with lowercase letters rather than with numerals. Double-space throughout; use dividing lines as needed fig. Any other type of illustrative visual material—for example, a photograph, map, line drawing, graph, or chart—should be labeled Figure usually abbreviated Fig.
If the caption of a table or illustration provides complete information about the source and the source is not cited in the text, no entry for the source in the works-cited list is necessary. Musical illustrations are labeled Example usually abbreviated Ex. Pyotr Ilich Tchaikovsky, Symphony no. Use a high-quality printer. Proofread and correct your research paper carefully before submitting it. If you are checking a printout and find a mistake, reopen the document, make the appropriate revisions, and reprint the corrected page or pages.
Be sure to save the changed file. Spelling checkers and usage checkers are helpful when used with caution. They do not find all errors and sometimes label correct material as erroneous. Do not use the margins or write a change below the line it affects. If corrections on any page are numerous or substantial, revise your document and reprint the page.
Pages of a printed research paper may get misplaced or lost if they are left unattached or merely folded down at a corner. Many prefer that a paper be secured with a simple paper or binder clip, which can be easily removed and restored. Others prefer the use of staples. There are at present no commonly accepted standards for the electronic submission of research papers. For example, the first African American President of the U. Primary sources may be in their original form or digitized, or reprinted or reproduced in some form.
They are first-hand accounts of an event or period in history, or original documents. Secondary sources are written about primary sources and are one or more steps away from the original source. They include discussions, comments and interpretations regarding the primary source or original material. Examples of secondary source materials are as follows:. Usually published as an article in a medical or professional publication, such as a journal, a peer-reviewed source undergoes multiple critiques by top scholars in a particular field.
Peer-reviewed articles offer authoritative information of the highest quality that scholarly disciplines can provide. Peer-reviewed and scholarly articles have these characteristics:. Cite your sources both in-text and at the end of your paper. For in-text citation, the easiest method is to parenthetically give the author's last name and the year of publication, e.
When you cite data from another author's work, explain all related aspects of the work clearly and concisely using your own words. Always provide a reference to the work directly following the information you have provided. Most colleges and organizations use a variety of citation styles. The citation style often depends on the professor, so always check before beginning a paper. No matter what the style you use for citing your paper, the process is always the same:.
The American Psychology Association — Use this style for education, psychology, sociology and other social sciences. American Medical Association or the National Library of Medicine for health, medicine and biological sciences. Students and researchers commonly use the Chicago Manual of Style guide, or Turabian, for most real-world subjects in magazines, books, newspapers and many other non-scholarly publications. There are a variety of scientific style guides depending on the particular field, whether it be biology, chemistry, engineering.
When using a citation program, always check for errors before inserting them into your reference or works cited page. The reference page is also called the annotated bibliography , and it should go at the end of the research paper. The purpose of annotated bibliographies is to link each source to one another in an orderly fashion. Adding citations may seem difficult at first; however, the more you practice, the easier it will become for you.
By using a style guide and checking examples, citing all your sources is simple and complete.
Get acquainted with research paper styles fundamentals. Learn some defining features of MLA, APA and Chicago styles.
One of the research paper styles is the APA (American Psychological Association) writing format. This style is used for writing research papers on science, psychology and other related subjects. It implies a schematic citation which allows authors to insert external information from related sources.
The recent edition of Kate L. Turabian A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations is aligned with the newest Chicago Manual of Style to match its requirements. The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th ed. We have a wide range of professionals specialized in different fields that can help you with any research paper styles possible. Don't hesitate to contact us.
Research and term paper citation introduction and guide. Learn how and when to cite, types of sources and specific style guides. A research paper does not normally need a title page, but if the paper is a group project, create a title page and list all the authors on it instead of in the header on page 1 of your essay. If your teacher requires a title page in lieu of or in addition to the header, format it .