The Supreme Court ruled that the program equated to a quota system, was unlawful, and should be struck down Kolling, At the same time, the Court also ruled that some race-conscious admissions programs could be permissible "if the procedure entailed the same process of individualized comparison for all applicants without systematically excluding any group from consideration" Kolling, , p. Two cases involving the University of Michigan in have also received a great deal of attention for the implications they have on the consideration of race in admissions.
Bollinger was deemed acceptable while the undergraduate admission policy of the University of Michigan Gratz v. The Law School's policy was essentially deemed acceptable because it encapsulated a "holistic approach to admissions" Eckes, , p. University of Texas , the high court remanded a challenge to affirmative action back to a lower court for further consideration. For all applicants, it is important for America's higher education institutions to be accessible and not be bastions of privilege.
In discussing admission preferences for underrepresented minorities, Bowen, Kurzweil, Tobin, and Pichler also stressed that "a diverse student body provides educational benefits to all students" p. Additionally, Shuford noted that research findings support the contention that students benefit in many ways when there is institutional commitment to diversity. For instance, students' cognitive development and satisfaction with their college experience have found to be enhanced when diversity is a priority Astin, , as cited in Shuford, The recent Supreme Court cases have found diversity to be "a compelling state interest in education" Eckes, , p.
Likewise, Massey outlined three compelling reasons to support affirmative action. First, Massey noted that community choice arguments would indicate that the lessening of discrimination can only occur when "'fairness' is guaranteed by building it into laws, procedures, guidelines, and organizational practices" p.
This program was implemented to both honor the service of these citizens, as well as ensure that they receive the resources they need to support themselves following their disabilities. Current United States law mandates that affirmative action programs exist for these veterans, and that respective agencies continually evaluate the success of these programs and report to the Federal Government.
Housed within the United States Office of Personnel Management, affirmative action policy was reformed in During this period, President Obama signed an executive order to provide a more strategic and evidence-based framework for assisting the veterans that have served our country.
One of the most critical factors to consider when analyzing the success of a particular aspect of affirmative action is the advantages offered to various competing minority and special needs groups Sabbagh, In some cases, the success of one affirmative action program may come at the expense of another. For example, agencies that offer affirmative action services for disabled veterans may have friction with minority ethnic groups or individuals with non-military disabilities.
This competition has elicited some controversy in recent years. One argument suggests that disabled veterans should not receive preferential treatment over better qualified candidates who are not disabled veterans Oh, Choi, Neville, Anderson, and Landrum-Brown, Proponents of this view assert that the aim of affirmative action is to promote equality amongst minority and special needs groups who may otherwise experience discrimination. However, placing the needs of one specific affirmative action group over another is contradictory to the aims of the policy and renders itself ineffective.
An opposing argument suggests that disabled veterans should receive preferential treatment over better qualified candidates who are not disabled veterans. Proponents of this view attest that disabled veterans should be granted special consideration not only because of their disabilities, but also because of their service to the nation Oh et al. According to the supporters of this argument, disabled veterans represent a special class of citizens that deserve the lifelong support of the federal government.
Instead, right or wrong is based on the results of the rule and its subsequent impact on society. A utilitariann theorist would suggest that the affirmative action conflict be resolved by examining which decision resulted in the greatest amount of good for the greatest number of people.
A deontological theorist would aim to resolve the affirmative action conflict by examining the fundamental ethics of each decision, regardless of the potential outcome. Based on these competing ethical viewpoints, a utilitarian perspective appears to be the most practical approach to resolving the current affirmative action conflict.
The most equitable manner in which to make a decision in this case is to examine which alternative provides the greatest benefit to the greatest number of people. Despite the fact that this viewpoint may limit the benefits provided to disabled veterans, assessing the inherent morality of a particular view or action is not measurable and prone to its own brand of controversy. From a utilitarian perspective, the most practical decision seems to be that disabled veterans experience the same level of need as any other affirmative action group, and should not be granted special considerations based on their service to our country.
Affirmative action is a complex policy, designed to end discrimination in hiring, college admissions, and the awarding of contracts. Before the policy was instituted, blacks faced an inevitable treatment of "last hired, first fired.
This concept of "white privilege," has been explored by many predominant thinkers. Peggy McIntosh points out that because of the color of their skin, whites will never understand what it is to experience racial pain and inequality.
She provides examples of what she as a white person is freely able to do, and that these conditions do not always apply for members of other races. McIntosh points out that blacks are denied equal jobs, housing, wages, and education. More importantly, however, she explains how subtly racism exists today.
When I am told about our national heritage or about "civilization," I am shown that people of my color made it what it is. I do not have to educate my children to be aware of systematic racism for their own daily physical protection" McIntosh. Clearly these aspects of African American life should be enough to warrant the institution of affirmative action, so why is it that so many people oppose the process? Many whites believe that affirmative action takes away their opportunities.
One might argue that two students applying to college, one black and one white are viewed differently. Though both students may be equally qualified, the college accepts the black student, following affirmative action. The white student has been denied a place at that college, simply because of the color of his skin.
Some might call this unfair, but in fact the black student is given an advantage that he would otherwise never have. The white student will almost certainly get into another college of equal rigor, and he will probably never face the hardships that the black student faces all the time.
This research paper discusses affirmative action for disabled veterans. Their special status and the impact of policies on servicemen and women are the focus/5(3).
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Affirmative action is the practice of preferential hiring for minorities to ensure that employees in businesses represent population demographics. In the A READ MORE HERE. Affirmative action in higher education admissions was established to help achieve diversity in the student body and provide greater access to higher education for members of historically.
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