The teacher trainee of Kosovo's completing the statement: The aim of this research study is to analyze interface design of concept maps developed by pre-service teachers by examining their visaul preferences in representing the relationships amongst the concepts. Considering the fact that concept maps have been frequently used in textbooks and The paper discusses an original path model for triangulating the results of three types of content analysis: The model refers to the 'within method' as well Academic advertising research has been criticized for a lack of progression and change.
The criticism has revolved around the fact that advertising research has heavily relied on theories and methodologies from its parent disciplines such as psychology, communication, and marketing. The aim of this study was the evaluation of the researches that were conducted in our country on proficiency of the teachers in terms of subject, aim, method and results, and was to state the necessary points to be taken into consideration in the choice of methods.
This study aims to understand the meaning of human dignity among adults in Korea. A qualitative study design is utilized. Data were collected with non-structured questions in a sample of 74 Korean adults and analyzed with qualitative content analysis. There were 4 categories, 31 themes and In an earlier paper, 1 we presented an introduction to using qualitative research methods in pharmacy practice.
In this article, we review some principles of the collection, analysis, and management of qualitative data to help pharmacists interested in doing research in their practice to continue their learning in this area.
Qualitative research can help researchers to access the thoughts and feelings of research participants, which can enable development of an understanding of the meaning that people ascribe to their experiences. Whereas quantitative research methods can be used to determine how many people undertake particular behaviours, qualitative methods can help researchers to understand how and why such behaviours take place. In the previous paper, 1 we outlined 3 commonly used methodologies: Grounded theory and its later modified versions e.
Qualitative work requires reflection on the part of researchers, both before and during the research process, as a way of providing context and understanding for readers.
When being reflexive, researchers should not try to simply ignore or avoid their own biases as this would likely be impossible ; instead, reflexivity requires researchers to reflect upon and clearly articulate their position and subjectivities world view, perspectives, biases , so that readers can better understand the filters through which questions were asked, data were gathered and analyzed, and findings were reported.
From this perspective, bias and subjectivity are not inherently negative but they are unavoidable; as a result, it is best that they be articulated up-front in a manner that is clear and coherent for readers. What qualitative study seeks to convey is why people have thoughts and feelings that might affect the way they behave. Such study may occur in any number of contexts, but here, we focus on pharmacy practice and the way people behave with regard to medicines use e.
As we suggested in our earlier article, 1 an important point about qualitative research is that there is no attempt to generalize the findings to a wider population. The role of the researcher in qualitative research is to attempt to access the thoughts and feelings of study participants. This is not an easy task, as it involves asking people to talk about things that may be very personal to them. However the data are being collected, a primary responsibility of the researcher is to safeguard participants and their data.
Mechanisms for such safeguarding must be clearly articulated to participants and must be approved by a relevant research ethics review board before the research begins. Researchers and practitioners new to qualitative research should seek advice from an experienced qualitative researcher before embarking on their project.
Whatever philosophical standpoint the researcher is taking and whatever the data collection method e. In addition to the variety of study methodologies available, there are also different ways of making a record of what is said and done during an interview or focus group, such as taking handwritten notes or video-recording.
If the researcher is audio- or video-recording data collection, then the recordings must be transcribed verbatim before data analysis can begin. Field notes allow the researcher to maintain and comment upon impressions, environmental contexts, behaviours, and nonverbal cues that may not be adequately captured through the audio-recording; they are typically handwritten in a small notebook at the same time the interview takes place. Field notes can provide important context to the interpretation of audio-taped data and can help remind the researcher of situational factors that may be important during data analysis.
Such notes need not be formal, but they should be maintained and secured in a similar manner to audio tapes and transcripts, as they contain sensitive information and are relevant to the research. It is their voices that the researcher is trying to hear, so that they can be interpreted and reported on for others to read and learn from.
To illustrate this point, consider the anonymized transcript excerpt presented in Appendix 1 , which is taken from a research interview conducted by one of the authors J. We refer to this excerpt throughout the remainder of this paper to illustrate how data can be managed, analyzed, and presented.
Interpretation of the data will depend on the theoretical standpoint taken by researchers. The first is the culture of the indigenous population of Canada and the place of this population in society, and the second is the social constructivist theory used in the constructivist grounded theory method.
With regard to the first standpoint, it can be surmised that, to have decided to conduct the research, the researchers must have felt that there was anecdotal evidence of differences in access to arthritis care for patients from indigenous and non-indigenous backgrounds. With regard to the second standpoint, it can be surmised that the researchers used social constructivist theory because it assumes that behaviour is socially constructed; in other words, people do things because of the expectations of those in their personal world or in the wider society in which they live.
Thus, these 2 standpoints and there may have been others relevant to the research of Thurston and others 7 will have affected the way in which these researchers interpreted the experiences of the indigenous population participants and those providing their care.
Another standpoint is feminist standpoint theory which, among other things, focuses on marginalized groups in society. Such theories are helpful to researchers, as they enable us to think about things from a different perspective. Being aware of the standpoints you are taking in your own research is one of the foundations of qualitative work. It is important for the researcher to reflect upon and articulate his or her starting point for such analysis; for example, in the example, the coder could reflect upon her own experience as a female of a majority ethnocultural group who has lived within middle class and upper middle class settings.
This personal history therefore forms the filter through which the data will be examined. This filter does not diminish the quality or significance of the analysis, since every researcher has his or her own filters; however, by explicitly stating and acknowledging what these filters are, the researcher makes it easer for readers to contextualize the work. For the purposes of this paper it is assumed that interviews or focus groups have been audio-recorded.
As mentioned above, transcribing is an arduous process, even for the most experienced transcribers, but it must be done to convert the spoken word to the written word to facilitate analysis.
For anyone new to conducting qualitative research, it is beneficial to transcribe at least one interview and one focus group. It is only by doing this that researchers realize how difficult the task is, and this realization affects their expectations when asking others to transcribe.
If the research project has sufficient funding, then a professional transcriber can be hired to do the work. If this is the case, then it is a good idea to sit down with the transcriber, if possible, and talk through the research and what the participants were talking about. This background knowledge for the transcriber is especially important in research in which people are using jargon or medical terms as in pharmacy practice. Involving your transcriber in this way makes the work both easier and more rewarding, as he or she will feel part of the team.
Transcription editing software is also available, but it is expensive. For example, ELAN more formally known as EUDICO Linguistic Annotator, developed at the Technical University of Berlin 8 is a tool that can help keep data organized by linking media and data files particularly valuable if, for example, video-taping of interviews is complemented by transcriptions.
It can also be helpful in searching complex data sets. Products such as ELAN do not actually automatically transcribe interviews or complete analyses, and they do require some time and effort to learn; nonetheless, for some research applications, it may be a valuable to consider such software tools. All audio recordings should be transcribed verbatim, regardless of how intelligible the transcript may be when it is read back. Lines of text should be numbered.
Textual Analysis for Social Research. Fairclough, Norman; Clive Holes The Critical Study of Language. Graffigna, Guendalina and Bosio, A. International Journal of Qualitative Methods 5 3 , article 5. Ethnography is a multi-method qualitative approachthat studies people in their naturally occurring settings. The purpose is to provide a detailed, in-depth description of everyday life and practice.
An ethnographic understanding is developed through close exploration of several sources like participant observation, observation, interviews, documents, newspapers, magazine articles or artifacts. The results of an ethnographic study are summaries of observed activities, typifications or the identification of patterns and regularities.
Computer applications in qualitative research. Qualitative Social Research, 8 3 , Art. Qualitative Social Research, 10 2 , Art.
The founder of Ethnomethodology Harold Garfinkel , developed this methodto better understand the social order people use in making sense of the world through. As data sources he uses accounts and descriptions of day-to-day experiences.
The aim is to discover the methods and rules of social action that people use in their everyday life. The focus is on how-question, rather than why-question as underlying motives are not of interest. Ethnomethodologists conduct their studies in a variety of ways focusing on naturally occurring data.
Central is the immersion in the situation being studied. They reject anything that looks like interview data. Important for an ethnomethodological analysis is self-reflection and the inspectability of data, thus the reader of an ethnomethodological study should be able to inspect the original data as means to evaluate any claim made by the analyst.
Steps in the process of data analysis include coding by type of discourse, counting frequencies of types of discourses, selecting the main types and checking for deviant cases. Francis, David and Stephen Hester. An invitation to Ethnomethodology. Language, Society and Interaction.
Its methodological roots are in phenomenology, social interactionism and ethnographyadapted by business studies and marketing research, but also used in other disciplines like medical research.
The investigation is carried out in the naturalistic environment where the phenomenon occurs. Methods of data collection include participant observation, depth interviews, group interviews and projective techniques. Analysis procedures consist of description, ordering or coding of data and displaying summaries of the data.
Gendered Suffering and Social Transformations: Domestic Violence, Dictatorship and Democracy in Chile. A focus group is a form of group interviewmainly used in marketing research. A Practical Guide for Applied Research, 3rd ed. The focused interview and the focus group — continuities and discontinuities. Public Opinions Quarterly, 51, A manual of problems and procedures.
Frame Analysis has generally been attributed to the work of Erving Goffman and his book: An essay on the organization of experience. This approach tries to explain social phenomena in terms of the everyday use of schemes or frames like beliefs, images or symbols.
The number of such frames available to people in making sense of their environment is limited by the particular society they live in. Frame Analysis is largely used in social movement theory, policy studies and health research. When it comes to analyzing the data, a quantitative and a qualitative approach has been suggested.
In quantitative studies the keyword approach is used extracting frames by means of hierarchical cluster or factor analysis. The software VBPro for example has especificallybeen developed for such procedures. Frames may however also be discovered via a qualitative coding approach. Propaganda Plays of the Woman Suffrage Movement: An Essay on the Organization of Experience.
Media Coverage on European Governance: European Journal of Communication 19 3 Grounded Theory GT is an inductive form of qualitative research that was first introduced by Glaser and Strauss It is a research approach in which the theory is developed from the data, rather than the other way around.
Data collection and analysis are consciously combined, and initial data analysis is used to shape continuing data collection. Strauss in disagreement with Glaser developed the approach further providing a more pragmatic and systematic descriptions of analytic steps, like the four different phases of coding: Sociological research has been greatly influenced by Grounded Theory and the method of coding based constant comparison and the theoretical sampling strategy is widely accepted.
In recent years, further variations of the grounded theory methodology have emerged. For example Kathy Charmaz introduced a constructivist version and Clarke discusses GT after the postmodern turn. Glaser rubbish the use of tape recording and transcription as he considers it a superfluous activity not aiding the process of conceptualizing.
Consequently he advises against the use of software. See a few examples below. Grounded Theory After the Postmodern Turn. Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for Qualitative Research.
Basics of Grounded Theory Analysis: Qualitative Analysis for Social Scientists. Basics of Qualitative Research: Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory. Burden, Johann and Roodt, Gert Grounded theory and its application in a recent study on organizational redesign. Some reflections and guidelines. Journal of Human Resource Management, 5 3 , 11 — Qualitative Social Research, 1 1 , Art. The grounded theory method and case study data in IS research: The Creation of Theory: As a theory of interpretation, the hermeneutic tradition stretches all the way back to ancient Greek philosophy.
In the middle ages and the Renaissance, hermeneutics emerges as a method to identify the meaning and intent of Biblical scripture. Today hermeneutics is also used as a strategy to address a broad range of research questions like interpreting human practices,events, and situations. Researchers bring their personal conviction to the analysis, but they need to be open for revision. In the process of collecting data, a tentative understanding is developed which is then tested against reality.
Further understanding is gained if discrepancies between the current interpretation and the new data are recognized. Thus, the process of understanding is characterized by constant revisions. This is referred to as the hermeneutic cycle.
Research Methods for Political Science: Quantitative and Qualitative Methods. Wallach, Harald , 2. Psychologie — Wissenschaftstheorie, philosophische Grundlagen und Geschichte: The term originally comes from phenomenological sociology, where it refers to the familiar world of everyday life. In analyzing lifeworlds, one attempts to draw out the individual structures within it.
A lifeworld can be understood as a physical environment even though the various inhabitants do not necessarily attribute the same meaning to the same space.
Document analysis is a form of qualitative research in which documents are interpreted by the researcher to give voice and meaning around an assessment topic (Bowen, ). Analyzing documents incorporates coding content into themes similar to how focus group or .
This article examines the function of documents as a data source in qualitative research and discusses document analysis procedure in the context of actual research experiences. Targeted to research novices, the article takes a nuts‐and‐bolts approach to document analysis. It describes the nature and forms of documents, outlines the advantages and limitations of document analysis, and.
This article examines the function of documents as a data source in qualitative research and discusses document analysis procedure in the context of actual research experiences. Targeted to research novices, the article takes a nuts-and-bolts. Document Analysis as a Qualitative Research Method Glenn A. Bowen WESTERN CAROLINA UNIVERSITY ABSTRACT This article examines the function of documents as a data source in qualitative research and discusses.
This article examines the function of documents as a data source in qualitative research and discusses document analysis procedure in the context of actual research experiences. Document Analysis as a Qualitative Research Method Glenn A. Bowen WESTERN CAROLINA UNIVERSITY ABSTRACT This article examines the function of documents as a data source in qualitative research and.