Another focus is motivation: For example, why does one product meet customer needs over another — and what are these needs that are being met? Qualitative research is conducted amongst smaller samples compared to quantitative research. In the case of attitudes to brands, for example, qualitative research may determine a specific view held about the brand, whereas quantitative research would tell us what proportion holds that view.
Each technique has its own specific advantages, depending on the nature of the target audience and the type of information that needs to be collected. For instance, while techniques such as interviews rely more on direct questioning of research subjects, ethnographic studies are predicated on observation. Quantitative and qualitative research work in tandem. The qualitative element frequently takes place at the front end of the study, exploring values that need measuring in the subsequent quantitative phase.
In this way, qualitative research can help to improve the usefulness and efficacy of quantitative research studies. Qualitative research may offer a diagnostic understanding of what is wrong, while the quantitative research provides hard data across different respondent groups that can lead to specific recommendations with measures that can be used as controls to determine the effectiveness of actions.
A professional market research company will take care in designing a research study to align the most appropriate techniques with the research objectives.
Of course, there are also practical considerations around which methods to use: In more niche business-to-business industries, the number of target organizations may be limited.
Quantitative research — the emphasis is on measurement Quantitative research is concerned with measurement of a market or population. Within market research, this may include, but is not limited to: For instance, estimating market sizes through asking questions about purchasing patterns, frequencies and future buying intent Measuring brand health: In order to robustly ascertain this, large numbers of responses are often required. For instance, measuring the impact of a market campaign on advertising awareness or brand associations by taking a measurement before and after the campaign also known as pre- and post-testing.
Examples of qualitative research methods used in market research include: In-depth interviews Focus groups Market research online communities MROCs Ethnography research Each technique has its own specific advantages, depending on the nature of the target audience and the type of information that needs to be collected.
In the table below, we outline some of the typical characteristics of these different research methods: Characteristic Qualitative market research Quantitative market research Is well suited to… Understanding the "how" or "why" behind specific behaviors or attitudes Projects where the dynamics of a market or decision-making process are not well-understood Niche audiences, because quantitative research may not be possible The initial stages of a larger program of research — especially to further scope or refine the design of later phases of the project Studies where measurement is the primary objective Mass market audiences — such as consumer markets or small businesses Projects that require a high level of statistical confidence in the results Where the structure of a market is known and research respondents are familiar with the language that is used in questions Sample sizes number of interviews, observations etc.
Small numbers — Frequently fewer than responses Larger numbers — Survey sample sizes are often in the s or s Time taken Dependent on sample sizes, but simple qual studies can be completed in days or just a few weeks The fieldwork phase for quant studies may take many weeks or months to complete How the data is reported Data are presented thematically , capturing the main "stories" behind the data.
Individual responses in the form of videos, quotes and audio are often used to demonstrate a specific theme. Popular quantitative market survey methods include online surveys, personal quantitative interviews, mail surveys, and telephone surveys. Combinations of these marketing research survey tools are referred to as "hybrid" research methods At Power Decisions Group, we recommend the data collection technique -- phone, face to face interviews, web interviews, traditional mail surveys-- according to the marketing research objective, time requirements, and quality control issues at play.
If moderator is merely to pepper people with structured questions, do a quant survey instead. Group interaction can stimulate unplanned reactions. Individuals have little time to speak individually; participants may hide or be passive. Depth Interviews with or without projective techniques Long, in-depth interviews using open-ended questioning.
Usually one-on-one, however dyads and triads may be used. A non-directive approach often useful to explore how respondent thinks about category. Photo-ethnography Observational method; "watching" rather than "asking" Participants interact with product or solutions to need Participant take video of relevant situations under study, e. Participants get highly involved in study. Unforeseen relationships may be discovered Somewhat forced environment as people may modify behavior.
Best for mostly close-end questioning, when dimensions and ranges of issues are known. Success depends highly on filtering sample to those consumer or business users who find topic or category relevant.
Optimum use is for top-of-mind awareness, branding and brand comparisons, and perception studies. Response rate is critical, especially with growing privacy issues and phone screening among consumers and business executives alike.
Skilled interviewer can extract more information than a self-administered method mail, online. Critical to monitor response rate to ensure sample is representative of target sampling frame. Central location usually use a convenience sample, i.
Used where a face-to-face environment is desired. In B2B research, personal interviews may be done by appointment where interviewer goes to respondent's office. Some special consumer studies may be done in-home by appointment. Often respondents are recruited to come to a central location, or recruited from mall traffic to a nearby office to conduct interview. Used for complicated or sensitive issues, B2B environments, or where extensive physical or visual display requirements exist along with need for specialized interviewing skills depth probing, time for evaluation and reaction.
Can provide good hybrid method combining features of qualitative and quantitative research by asking quant-type questions first, followed by in-depth probing questions and projective techniques.
Can employ true random probability sampling. Complicated survey questionnaire formats can be used. For example, piping, rating, rankings, constant sum questions, etc. Easy to display visual information previously available only in a face-to-face interview format. Allows deployment of complicated respondent tasks. Sampling control is critical. Large pre-recruited panels allow quick access to willing respondents, although sampling validity must be carefully assessed.
The difference between qualitative and quantitative research is a fundamental distinction within research practice. Below, we outline how "qual" and "quant" data vary, and the implications for market researchers.
Qualitative Research Quantitative Research; Meaning: Qualitative research is a method of inquiry that develops understanding on human and social sciences, to find the way people think and feel. Quantitative research is a research method that is used to generate numerical data and hard facts, by employing statistical, logical and mathematical technique.
Popular qualitative market research methods include focus group studies, depth interviews triads (one interviewer, two respondents, and dyads (one interviewer, one respondent,) and observational techniques such as ethnography and, popular in marketing research, photo ethnography. What’s the difference between qualitative and quantitative research? Susan E. DeFranzo September 16, Many times those that undertake a research project often find they are not aware of the differences between Qualitative Research and Quantitative Research methods.
Qualitative Research – Unlike quantitative research, qualitative research is typically unstructured and exploratory in nature. In this case, the researcher is not interested in determining objective statistical conclusions or in testing a hypothesis, but rather in gaining insights about a certain topic. The process of conducting primary market research and collecting market research data and information can be broken down into two methods; quantitative and qualitative research. Each method involves a different process, and reveals different information.